Accepted Name - Basionymum / Basionym - Synonyms - Ind. loc. [Indicatio locotypica (type locality)] - Lectotypus [Lectotype] - Designated by - Host - Comments - Chromosomatic number - Ic. [Images] - Distribution - Specimens Examined - References - Authors - Cite us

ISSN: 2386-9666 - Last Updated: 10 December 2020


Accepted Name:

Cistanche trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh. in Zap. in Imp. Akad. Nauk Fiz.-Mat. Otd.: 6 [105] (1896) (Korshinsky 1896: 6; ipni.org/n/77112552-1; Beck 1930: 37)

Basionymum / Basionym:

Phelypaea trivalvis Trautv. in Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 5: 467 (1877)

Synonyms:

Homotypic synonyms:

Cistanche trivalvis (Trautv.) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 37 (1930), nom. superfl.

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Heterotypic synonyms:

= Cistanche eremodoxa Bornm. in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 40: 336, t. 215 (1936) ["(sp. n.) Sectio Eu-cistanche G. Beck in Orobancliaceae (Pflanzenreich, 96. Heft [IV. 261]; Leipz. 1930"]. Syn.: = Cistanche trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh. in Zap. in Imp. Akad. Nauk Fiz.-Mat. Otd.: 6 (1896); Cistanche ambigua (Bunge) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 40 (1930) (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 25[23], 31[30]), t. 3 f. 1, sub C. ambigua; Gilli 1979: 287-288, 290, sub C. ambigua). Ind. loc.: Persia: "Khorasan: "Dünen um die Große Kawir [Dasht-e Kavir desert]." — Die Sammelstelle der drei vorhandenen, gut präparierten Belegstücke ist "Big-e Djinn" im Süden der Provinz Djandak-Biyabanak [Jandaq-Khur and Biabanak County, Isfahan Province], in 950 m Seehöhe (10. bis 12.IV.1933; no. 90): "Blütenfarbe blaß violett. Nähr­pflanze Tamariske [Tamarix sp.]" (Bornmüller 1936: 336-337). Herbarium Specimens: "Type:—Iran (lectotype here designated): auf Dünen der „großen Kawin [Dasht-e Kavir desert]", 1933, leg. Dr. A. Gabriel [s.n.], det. J. Bornmüller (B-100264802!). We choose as lectotype the specimen conserved in B, which corresponds to the specimen on the left side and almost without stem of the two that appear in the Bornmüller photo (t. 215)" (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 14, sub C. armena). Obs. "C. eremodoxa, ein Vertreter der Sektion Eu-cistanche und als solcher gekennzeichnet durch «calycis lobis 5 aequalibus rotundatis, obtusis», zählt zu der kleinen Gruppe von Arten, deren Brakteen, Brakteolen und Kelche am Rand ± stark weiß-wollig behaart sind. Der sehr großen Korollen halber, die 40 mm lang sind, ist unsere Pflanze neben C. trivalvis (Trautv.) G. Beck einzuordnen und ist — nach dem Wortlaut der Diagnose zu urteilen — dieser Art zweifels­ ohne auch nah verwandt. Leider ist diese C. trivalvis Trautv. (sub Phelipaea in Act. Hort. Petrop. V, 467—468; a. 1877), die bisher nur einmal in Transkaspien bei Krasnowodsk und auf der Insel Tscheleken (also im Küstengebiet) gesammelt worden ist, in keinem der mir zugänglichen Institutsherbarien vertreten, und auch dem Monographen G. Beck hatte bei Bearbeitung der Orobanchazeen im «Pflanzenreich» ein Belegstück nicht vorgelegen. Jedenfalls schreibt Trautvetter seiner Art ausdrücklich «corollae lobi... lanuginoso-ciliati [see inflorescence apex]» ..." (Bornmüller 1936: 337). "...C. eremodoxa, which has been treated as a synonym of the precedent species [C. ambigua] by some authors, is for us a completely different species, as it was already indicated by Bornmüller (1936: 336)..." (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 14, sub C. armena). "Note. The distincitions between this species [C. ambigua (Bge.) Beck sensu Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 31[30]), t. 3 f. 1 (C. trivalvis)] and the preceding species [Cistanche salsa] are not always clearly expressed" (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 24[29]). "seed ornamentation confirms the separation of these two species (unclear and broken striate ornamentation in C. salsa and dense and clear striate ornamentation in C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis])" (Shahi Shavvon & Saeidi Mehrvarz 2010: 620 [C. trivalvis]). Herbarium Specimens: "Cistanche ambigua (Bunge) Beck / Persia, C, Yazd, in arenosis mobilibus Rig-e Djin [Rig-e Jenn] 37 km a Chah Malek [Khur and Biabanak County], 33°45'12.0"N 54°42'06.0"E, versus Chupunum [Chah-e Chupanan, Nain County, Isfahan Province], 33°33'00.0"N 54°19'00.0"E / 1975-05-16 / K.H. Rechinger 51926" (W 1979-0007096 - herbarium.univie.ac.at/database/detail.php?ID=295217; det. Gilli 1975, sub C. ambigua [n.v.]]); Cistanche salsa (C.A. Mey.) Beck - Persia, C, Shahrud-Bustam, 8 km a Delbar [Kalateh-ye Delbar] versus Ahmadabad [35°46'01.0"N 56°36'08.0"E, Shahrud County, Iran], Iranshahr, M. s.n. - det. Gilli 1975 - rev. Cistanche ambigua; Ataei 2012 (W 1978-0004410 - jacq.org/detail.php?ID=295220 - gbif.org/occurrence/1230525605 [n.v. (C. trivalvis?)]); "... / No 240 Date 14.04.2003 / ... / Cistanche / Semnan Province, / A. Ghorbani" (TMRC 0000240 - herbarium.univie.ac.at/database/detail.php?ID=958945; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2020 [C. trivalvis])

= Cistanche afghanica Gilli in Candollea 34(2): 288 (1979). Syn.: = Cistanche trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh. in Zap. in Imp. Akad. Nauk Fiz.-Mat. Otd.: 6 (1896); = Cistanche eremodoxa Bornm. in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 40: 336, t. 215 (1936). Ind. loc.: "Afghanistan: SE: Kandahar: 5 km N. of Darweshan [31°08'00"N 64°11'33"E, Helmand Province]. Parasitic on Alhagi [Fabaceae (Leguminosae)] in desert sand, ca. 1300 m, 21.IV.1969, Hedge & Ekberg W 7213 ([holo-]typus E [E 00028887)". Herbarium Specimens: 1. "Flora of Afghanistan / Orobanche / Prov. Helmand: 5 km N. of Darweshan [31°08'00"N 64°11'33"E]. / Parasitic on Alhagi [Fabaceae (Leguminosae)] in desert sand / Flowers white violet blue. / Alt. c. 1300 m   21 April 1969, I. Hedge & L. Ekberg   No. W 7213". 2. "Cistanche afghanica Gilli sp. nov. / ([holo-]Typus) / 1972  det. A. Gilli" (E 00028887; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2020). Obs. "Differet a Cistanche ambigua [= C. trivalvis], cui simillima..." (Gilli 1979: 288, sub C. ambigua)

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Misapplied names:

Cistanche ambigua auct., non Cistanche ambigua (Bunge) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 40 (1930) (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 25[23], sub C. ambigua; Gilli 1979: 287, 290, sub C. ambigua; Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008: 99, sub C. ambigua [= C. eremodoxa]; powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:661946-1)

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Ind. loc.: "In Turkomania [Turkmenistan], prope Krasnowodsk [Türkmenbaşy / Turkmenbashi / Krasnovodsk / Красноводск / Kyzyl-Su]" et in insula Tscheleken [Cheleken Peninsula / Челекен полуостров] (B. [Becker])" (Trautvetter 1877: 467).

Typus / Type: Type in LE.

Designated by:

Host: "Nähr­pflanze Tamariske [Tamarix sp.]" (Bornmüller 1936: 336-337, sub C. eremodoxa); "Parasitic on species of saxaul (Haloxylon Bge.), possibly also on other Chenopodiaceae" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 26[24], sub C. ambigua). "Parasitic on Alhagi [Fabaceae (Leguminosae)]" (Gilli 1979; 288, sub C. afghanica). Calligonum sp. [Polygonaceae Juss.] (Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008: 97, sub C. ambigua).

It has been mentioned as parasite on:

Chenopodiaceae

Haloxylon Bge. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 26[24], sub C. ambigua).

Fabaceae (Leguminosae)

Alhagi sp. Afghanistan (Gilli 1979; 288, sub C. afghanica).

Polygonaceae

Calligonum sp. Iran (Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008: 97, sub C. ambigua).

Tamaricaceae

Tamarix sp. Iran (Bornmüller 1936: 336-337, sub C. eremodoxa); Tajikistan (LE - PiwowarczykDSC09392).

Comments:

Morphological observations:

Cistanche trivalvis: "perianthio campanulato ... 5-lobo, lobis aequalibus [Cistanche sect. Eucistanche Beck (1890)], semiorbicularibus, apice rotundatis, margine lanuginoso ciliatis; corolla extus glabrae ... limbo deorsum spectante, 5-lobo, lobis semiorbicularibus, apice rotundatis, patentibus, lanuginoso-ciliatis; ... differre mihi ... corolla valde dorsum curvata (non recta)" (Trautvetter 1877: 467-468).

Related Species:

Cistanche ambigua (Bunge) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 40 (1930). Syn.: Phelypaea ambigua Bunge in Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans 7: 429 (1851); Orobanche salsa var. ambigua (Bunge) Kuntze in Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 10: 225 (1887) ["δ ambigua O. Ktze."] (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 14); Phelypaea trivalvis Trautv. in Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 5: 467 (1877) (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 25[23], sub C. ambigua; Gilli 1979: 287, sub C. ambigua); Cistanche trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh. in Zap. Imp. Akad. Nauk Fiz.-Mat. Otd.: 6 (1896); Cistanche eremodoxa Bornm. in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 40: 336 (1936) (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 25[23], sub C. ambigua). Ind. loc.: "Hab. Lehmsteppe in der Wüste Kisil-kum [Kyzyl Kum / Qizilqum / Қызылқұм, Turkmenistan?- Uzbekistan?] 20. April 1842" (Bunge 1851: 429); "In desertis argillosis prope Kisil Kum in Turkestan [Turkistan] (Lehmann!)" (Beck 1930: 40); "Described from Kyzyl Kum desert. Type in Paris (?), topotype in Leningrad [LE]" (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 24[29]). "Type:—Turkestan (holotype): Kisil-Kum [Kyzylkum desert], Lehmann [Alexandri Lehmann reliquiae botanicae] (P-02970944!). Basionym:—Phelypaea ambigua Bunge (1851: 429). Homotypic synonym:—Orobanche salsa var. ambigua (Bunge) Kuntze (1887: 225)" (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 14, sub C. armena).

Ic.: Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 30[37] t. 3 f. 1, sub C. ambigua [see C. trivalvis].

Host-plants: "Parasitic on species of saxaul (Haloxylon Bge.), possibly also on other Chenopodiaceae" (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 26[24], sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis]); "Calligonum (Polygonaceae)" (Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008: 97, sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis]).

Obs. "Speciinen unicum [!], planta tamen distinctissima inter Trionychia et Cistanches intermedia et Ph. fissae C. A. Mey. proxima, ab hac vero calyce integro distincta; a simillima Ph. salsa differt calyce, corollis angustioribus longioribus, et antheris apiculatis; cum caeteris haud confundenda" (Bunge 1851: 429). "Non vidi ... affinis P. fissa et salsae" (Boissier 1879: 502, P. ambigua); "Nec Boissier neque autor specimen huius plantae vidit, quae Cistanchi fissae proxima vel identica esse videtur" (Beck 1930: 40); "corolla ... more or less hairy ... often along edges of lobes too" (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 26[24], sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis]). After looking at the types of the two taxa, we believe that Cistanche ambigua (Bunge) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 40 (1930) is a synonym for C. salsa (C.A. Mey.) Beck and C. ambigua sensu Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958, Ataei & al. 2020 et auct. pl., non Bunge is a synonym for Cistanche trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh.

Herbarium Specimens: "Phelypaea ambigua / Alexandri Lehmann / reliquiae botanicae. / ... / Kisil-Kum [Turkmenistan?- Uzbekistan?] / Al. Bunge" (MNHN-P-P02970944 - P 02970944.jpg - hb. E. Cosson - gbif.org/occurrence/437448054; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2015, holotype of Phelypaea ambigua [inflorescence cylindrical, dense; flowers erect; corolla straight, tube white, lobes semicircular, almost equal, glabrous and dark violet (see C. salsa (C.A. Mey.) Beck)]).

Taxonomic observations.

C. trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh. is apparently a prioritary name for C. afghanica Gilli and C. eremodoxa Bornm.

According to Beck 1930: 27, 37 this species belongs to the Cistanche sect. Eucistanche Beck (flowers with two bracteoles and campanulate calyx with obtuse, rounded and regular lobes).

Based on its phylogenetic relationships, Ataei & al. 2020 indicate that it is a member of "Southwest Asian Clade". The species placed in this Clade by Ataei & al. 2020 are: C. ambigua (Bunge) Beck sensu Ataei et auct. [= C. trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh.!], C. deserticola Ma, C. fissa (C.A. Mey) Beck (s.l.), C. ridgewayana Aitch. & Hemsl. (s.l.), C. salsa (C.A. Mey.) Beck (1895).

Chromosomatic number:

Ic.: a, Bornmüller 1936: t. 215, sub C. eremodoxa; b, Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 31[30]), t. 3 f. 1, sub C. ambigua.

Distribution: Afghanistan, Armenia [in error for C. armena], Azerbaijan [in error for C. fissa], China [unconfirmed], Iran, Kazakhstan [unconfirmed], Kyrgyzstan [unconfirmed], Mongolia [unconfirmed], Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan [unconfirmed].

"Mainly in sands. — Caucasus: Southern Transcaucasia. Soviet Central Asia: Aralo-Caspian Region [Aral Sea-Caspian Sea] (southern part), Balkhash Region (southern and eastern parts), Kara Kum [Karakum Desert], Kyzyl Kum [Kisil-Kum, Turkmenistan], Syr Darya, Amu Darya, mountainous Turkmenia, Pamiro-Alai [Pamir-Alay / Памиро-Алай]. General distribution: Armenia-Kurdistan, Iran, Dzhungaria-Kashgaria, Mongolia, Tibet" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 26[24], sub C. ambigua).

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Specimens examined and literature records.

Afghanistan /  افغانستان / Afġānistān / Afganistán (Gilli 1979: 288, loc. class. of C. afghanica)

Helmand Province: 1. "Flora of Afghanistan / Orobanche / Prov. Helmand: 5 km N. of Darweshan [31°08'00"N 64°11'33"E]. / Parasitic on Alhagi [Fabaceae (Leguminosae)] in desert sand / Flowers white violet blue. / Alt. c. 1300 m   21 April 1969, I. Hedge & L. Ekberg   No. W 7213". 2. "Cistanche afghanica Gilli sp. nov. / ([holo-]Typus) / 1972  det. A. Gilli" (E 00028887; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2020); "Afghanistan: SE: Kandahar: 5 km N. of Darweshan [31°08'00"N 64°11'33"E]. Parasitic on Alhagi [Fabaceae (Leguminosae)] in desert sand, ca. 1300 m, 21.IV.1969, Hedge & Ekberg W 7213 ([holo-]typus E [E 00028887)" (Gilli 1979: 288, loc. class. of C. afghanica).

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Armenia / Hayastan / Armenien [reported in error for the endemic C. armena (Koch 1844: 291, loc. class. of P. armena; Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 13, sub C. armena)

"Southern Transcaucasia ... Armenia-Kurdistan..." (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 26[24], sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh.]).

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Azerbaijan / Azərbaycan / Азәрбајҹан / Azerbaiyán / Aserbaidschan / Azerbaïdjan [unconfirmed, see C. fissa]

"Southern Transcaucasia" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 26[24], sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh.]).

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Caucasus / Cáucaso / Caucas / Caucase [unconfirmed, see C. armena and C. fissa (C.A. Mey.) Beck]

"Southern Transcaucasia" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 26[24], sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh.]).

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China / Chine / 中国 / Китай [unconfirmed, see C. salsa] (Zhang 1990, C. ambigua [= C. salsa]; Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 26[24], sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh.])

Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) / 西藏自治区 / Tibet / Xizang / Xizang Autonomous Region: "Tibet" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 26[24], sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh.]).

Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region / 新疆维吾尔自治区 / Xinjiang / Sinkiang / 新疆: "Dzhungaria-Kashgaria" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 26[24], sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh.]).

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Dsungarei [Songaria / Soogaria / Zhungaria / Dzungaria: Xinjiang (China), western Mongolia and eastern Kazakhstan] [unconfirmed, see C. salsa] (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 26[24], sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh.])

"Dzhungaria-Kashgaria" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 26[24], sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh.]).

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Iran / Irán / Persia / Persien (Bornmüller 1904: 686, sub C. eremodoxa; Schiman-Czeika 1964: 22, sub C. eremodoxa; Schiman-Czeika 1964: 22, sub C. ambigua; Gilli 1979: 290, sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh.]; Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008: 96, sub C. ambigua [= C. eremodoxa])

Isfahan / Esfahan Province: 1. "Flora Pers. bor. or. / Herbarium J. Bornmüller / Cistanche eremodoxa sp. nov. / (sect. Eucistanche) / auf Dünen der «großen Kawin [Dasht-e Kavir desert]» / 1933, leg. Dr. A. Gabriel [s.n.], det. J. Bornmüller". 2. "sect. Eucistanche / G. Beck / Pflan. 1930. / Cistanche eremodoxa Bornm. / ex aff. C. trivialis (Trautv.) G. Beck / a qua differet corollae limbo margine / glaberrimo (non lanuginoso) / bracteis ... in apice superiore comosis./ Pers. bor. or.: / Dünen d. Gr. Kawin [Dasht-e Kavir desert]» á 1933, leg. Dr. A. Gabriel  [m. Beck]". 3. "vide icon: Repert. Spec. Nov. / 40: 336, Tab. CCXV. 1936". 4. "Lectotypus". 5. "Cistanche ambigua, rev. Najibeh Ataei" (B 10 0264802 - hb. J. Bornmüller - ED644 - ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/LT715394.1 (Ataei & al. 2020, sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis]); rev. R. Piwowarczyk & Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018; Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 14, sub C. armena, lectotype of C. eremodoxa Bornm.); "Khorasan: "Dünen um die Große Kawir [Dasht-e Kavir desert]." — Die Sammelstelle der drei vorhandenen, gut präparierten Belegstücke ist "Big-e Djinn" im Süden der Provinz Djandak-Biyabanak [Jandaq-Khur and Biabanak County], in 950 m Seehöhe (10. bis 12.IV.1933; no. 90): "Blütenfarbe blaß violett. Nähr­pflanze Tamariske [Tamarix sp.]" (Bornmüller 1936: 336-337, loc. class. of C. eremodoxa Bornm.); "Cistanche ambigua (Bunge) Beck / Persia, C, Yazd, in arenosis mobilibus Rig-e Djin [Rig-e Jenn] 37 km a Chah Malek [Khur and Biabanak County], 33°45'12.0"N 54°42'06.0"E, versus Chupunum [Chah-e Chupanan, Nain County], 33°33'00.0"N 54°19'00.0"E / 1975-05-16 / K.H. Rechinger 51926" (W 1979-0007096 - herbarium.univie.ac.at/database/detail.php?ID=295217; det. Gilli 1975, sub C. ambigua [n.v.]]); "Yazd: Rig-e Djin 37 km Chah Malek versus Chupunun,  800 m, Rch. 51926" (Gilli 1979: 290, sub C. ambigua); "60 km North of Naein [Nain, Nain County], 1800 m, Iranshahr 32313 ... Gabriel 193b (B. !, Lectotype)" (Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008: 99, sub C. ambigua [= C. eremodoxa]).

Semnan Province / Ostān-e Semnān: "Persia: C: Shahr. Bust.: 8 km a Delbar [Kalateh-ye Delbar] versus Ahmadabad [35°46'01.0"N 56°36'08.0"E], Iranshahr s.n. Kavir Protected Region: 80 km N.W. Shah Abbas Karavan-Sarai, 900 m, Wdb., Ala & Cobham 10847" (Gilli 1979: 290, sub C. ambigua); Cistanche salsa (C.A. Mey.) Beck - Persia, C, Shahrud-Bustam, 8 km a Delbar [Kalateh-ye Delbar] versus Ahmadabad [35°46'01.0"N 56°36'08.0"E, Shahrud County], Iranshahr, M. s.n. - det. Gilli 1975 - rev. Cistanche ambigua; Ataei 2012 (W 1978-0004410 - jacq.org/detail.php?ID=295220 - gbif.org/occurrence/1230525605 [n.v. (C. eremodoxa?)]); "Azerb. [Iranian Azerbaijan]: Moghan [Moghān, Howmeh Rural District, Shahrud County] prope fines rossicas, Aubert in Pabot AM 14" (Gilli 1979: 291, sub C. salsa); "C: Damgh.-Semn: in deserto supra Sorkheh [Surkheh, Sorkheh District, Semnan County] prope Semnan, 1300-1400 m, Rech. 52165 [B 10 0264819; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Oct 2013, sub C. ridgewayana Aitch. & Hemsl. — W 1978-0003996 - herbarium.univie.ac.at/database/detail.php?ID=295205; rev. Gilli 1975, sub C. salsa; Ataei 2012, sub C. ambigua (n.v.)]. Kavir Protected Region [Kavir National Park, Dasht-e Kavir / Kavir-e Namak / Great Salt Desert, Iranian plateau]: 60 km S.E. Karavan-Sarai Shah Abbas [Karavan-Saray Shah Abbas], 900 m, Rech. 50176 [W 1978-0003997 - herbarium.univie.ac.at/database/detail.php?ID=295219 (n.v.)]" (Gilli 1979: 291, sub C. salsa [see C. salsa]); "Chahjam [Chah Hajam / Chah-e Jam, 35°45'00.0"N 55°07'00.0"E], 1100 m, Freitag & Mozaffarian 28414" (Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008: 99, sub C. ambigua [= C. eremodoxa]); "Shahr.-Bust.:, N.N.E. Ahmadabad [35°46'01.0"N 56°36'08.0"E], Rech. 50654 [W 1979-0007025 - herbarium.univie.ac.at/database/detail.php?ID=295216 - ED748 - ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/LT715395.1 (Ataei & al. 2020, sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis]); rev. Rechinger, sub C. laxiflora; Gilli, sub [C. fissa]!; Ataei 2012, sub C. ambigua (n.v.)]" (Gilli 1979: 290, sub C. fissa [see C. fissa (C.A. Mey) Beck (s.l.)]); "Semnan: Shahrud [Shahrud County], Ahmad Abad [35°46'01.0"N 56°36'08.0"E], Rechinger 50654" (Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008: 99, sub C. fissa [see C. fissa (C.A. Mey) Beck (s.l.)]); "... / No 240 Date 14.04.2003 / ... / Cistanche / Semnan Province, / A. Ghorbani" (TMRC 0000240 - herbarium.univie.ac.at/database/detail.php?ID=958945; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2020 [C. trivalvis]).

Tehran Province: "Tehran: protected region of Kavir, Talhe [Rig-e Talheh, Varamin County?, 34°36'51.8"N 52°35'12.8"E], 900-1000 m, Runemark, Assadi & Foroughi 19539" (Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008: 99, sub C. ambigua [= C. eremodoxa]).

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Kazakhstan / Қазақстан / Qazaqstan / Казахстан / Kazajistán [unconfirmed, see C. salsa]

"Soviet Central Asia: Aralo-Caspian Region [Aral Sea-Caspian Sea] (southern part), ... Kara Kum [Karakum Desert], ... Syr Darya, Amu Darya" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 26[24], sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh.]).

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Kyrgyzstan / Кыргызстан / Киргизстан / Kirguistán / Kirgisistan / Kirgiziya [unconfirmed, see C. salsa]

"Soviet Central Asia: Aralo-Caspian Region [Aral Sea-Caspian Sea] (southern part), ... Syr Darya, Amu Darya ... Pamiro-Alai [Pamir-Alay / Памиро-Алай]" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 26[24], sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh.]).

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Mongolia / Монгол улc / Mongolei [unconfirmed, see C. salsa]

"Mongolia" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 26[24], sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh.]).

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Tajikistan / Таджикистан / Tadzhikistan / Tayikistán / Tadschikistan (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 26[24], sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh.]; Safarov 2017: 350, sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh.])

"Syr Darya, Amu Darya ... Pamiro-Alai [Pamir-Alay / Памиро-Алай]" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 26[24], sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh.]).

Districts under Central Government Jurisdiction / Ноҳияҳои тобеи ҷумҳурӣ / Районы республиканского подчинения: "Таджикская база Академии наук СССР / В.А. Никитин. Растения южного Таджикистана / ... [near Hisor / Ҳисор / Гиссар / Gissar?] / (на корнях Tamarix ?) / 1.V.1936 г. n.º 76 / V. Nikitin. Plantae Tadshhikistaniae meridionalis" (LE - PiwowarczykDSC09392; rev. R. Piwowarczyk & Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018).

Sughd Province / Вилояти Суғд: 1. "... / N.º 168 / Cistanche salsa G. Beck / Ходжентский уезд [Khojent Uezd, Samarkand Oblast, Uzbek SSR (1924) - Tajik SSR (1929)] ... / 10.V. 1914 / O. von Knorring. Iter ad prov. Samarkand [Самарқанд вилояти]. 1914". 2. "Cistanche ambigua (Bunge) G. Beck / 1954.XII.8  Teste Tzvelev" (LE-PiwowarczykDSC09393; rev. R. Piwowarczyk & Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018 [cf.]).

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Turkistan / Turkestan / Turquestán / Turkestán / Туркестан / "Land of the Turks" [Central Asia / Middle Asia / "the stans": Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan] [unconfirmed, see C. salsa]

"Soviet Central Asia: Aralo-Caspian Region [Aral Sea-Caspian Sea] (southern part), ... Syr Darya, Amu Darya ... Pamiro-Alai [Pamir-Alay / Памиро-Алай]" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 26[24], sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh.]).

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Turkmenistan / Türkmenistan / Turkmenia / Туркмения / Turkmenien / Turcomannia (Bunge 1851: 429, loc. class. of Phelypaea ambigua Bunge; Trautvetter 1877: 467, loc. class. of C. trivalvis; Beck 1930: 37, loc. class. of C. trivalvis)

Balkan Region / Balkan welaýaty / Балканский велаят: 1. "N.º 958 Orobanche sp. / Zeichnen im Brief [illustration with analysis, Radde in Itinere Transcaspico anni 1886]. / Balchan basis April 86 / leg. Radde". 2. "13 April 86. / Am Brummenrande in Sande / auf ... des großen Balchan - / gebirges [Großer Balkan / Uly Balkan / Großer Baichan], circa 13 ... von Bala-Ischem [12 km southeast of Balkanabat / Балканабат / Nebit-Dag / Neftedag]". 3. "Cistanche ambigua (Bunge) G. Beck / I. Novopokrovsky. / = Cistanche trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh.!" (LE-PiwowarczykDSC09395; rev. R. Piwowarczyk & Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018); "In Turkomania [Turkmenistan], prope Krasnowodsk [Türkmenbaşy / Turkmenbashi / Krasnovodsk / Красноводск / Kyzyl-Su] et in insula Tscheleken [Cheleken Peninsula / Челекен полуостров] (B. [Becker])" (Trautvetter 1877: 467, loc. class. of C. trivalvis); 1. "Herbarium Academiae Petropolitanae. / Cistanche trivalvis (Trautv.) / Cm. Мулла-кара [Mollagara], на песках [?] / 4.IV.[18]95 / Turkestania  Legit S. Korshinsky". 2. "Cistanche ambigua (Bunge) G. Beck / I. Novopokrovsky. Notae criticae / = Cistanche trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh. / 1948.8.IV" (LE - PiwowarczykDSC09394; rev. R. Piwowarczyk & Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018); "Оба вида, повидимому, нерѣдки въ западной части Закаспійской области [Transcaspian region]. Я ихъ находилъ особенно часто по возвышеннымъ песчанымъ берегамъ Узбоя [Uzboy] (древняго русла Аму-Дарьи [Amu Darya]) около Мулла-кары [Mollagara]" (Korshinsky 1896: 6, comb. nov. of C. trivalvis); "Turkomanien: bei Krasnowodsk [Türkmenbaşy / Turkmenbashi / Krasnovodsk / Красноводск / Kyzyl-Su] und auf der Insel Tscheieken [Cheleken Peninsula / Челекен полуостров] (Becker)" (Beck 1930: 37, loc. class. of C. trivalvis); Cistanche ambigua (Bunge) G. Beck Туркменская ССР / Turkmen SSR, Красноводск область / Krasnovodsk Oblast [Türkmenbaşy / Turkmenbashi / Krasnovodsk / Красноводск / Kyzyl-Su], 01 июня 1986 г. [1.06.1986] Собр. Жиряков А. В. [Coll. Zhiryakov A.V.] (plant.depo.msu.ru/open/public/item/MW0877613 - MW 0877613.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018 [cf. C. trivalvis]).

Lebap Region / Lebap welaýaty / Лебапский велаят: "Phelypaea ambigua / Alexandri Lehmann / reliquiae botanicae. / ... / Kisil-Kum / Al. Bunge" (MNHN-P-P02970944 - P 02970944.jpg - hb. E. Cosson - gbif.org/occurrence/437448054; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2015, holotype of Phelypaea ambigua) rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2015, holotype of Phelypaea ambigua); "Hab. Lehmsteppe in der Wüste Kisil-kum [Kyzyl Kum / Qizilqum / Қызылқұм, Balkan] 20. April 1842." (Bunge 1851: 429, loc. class. of Phelypaea ambigua Bunge); "In desertis argillosis prope Kisil Kum in Turkestan [Turkistan] (Lehmann!)" (Beck 1930: 40, loc. class. of Phelypaea ambigua Bunge); Chardzhou [Türkmenabat / Түркменабат / Chardzhou / Чарджоу], Repetek Nature Reserve, 1927-04-25, leg. Aleksei Ivanovich Vvedensky det. Najibeh Ataei (BM 001011728 - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/1056823659 [n.v.]).

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Uzbekistan / Usbekistan / O'zbekiston / Uzbekistán / Ouzbékistan / Узбекистанn [unconfirmed]

"Soviet Central Asia: Aralo-Caspian Region [Aral Sea-Caspian Sea] (southern part), ... Syr Darya, Amu Darya ... Pamiro-Alai [Pamir-Alay / Памиро-Алай]" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 26[24], sub C. ambigua [= C. trivalvis (Trautv.) Korsh.]).

Samarkand Region / Самаркандская область: 1. "... / N.º 168 / Cistanche salsa G. Beck / Ходжентский уезд [Khojent Uezd, Samarkand Oblast, Uzbek SSR (1924) - Tajik SSR (1929)] ... / 10.V. 1914 / O. von Knorring. Iter ad prov. Samarkand [Самарқанд вилояти]. 1914". 2. "Cistanche ambigua (Bunge) G. Beck / 1954.XII.8  Teste Tzvelev" (LE-PiwowarczykDSC09393; rev. R. Piwowarczyk & Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018 [cf.]).

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