Accepted Name - Basionymum / Basionym - Synonyms - Ind. loc. [Indicatio locotypica (type locality)] - Lectotypus [Lectotype] - Designated by - Host - Comments - Chromosomatic number - Ic. [Images] - Distribution - Specimens Examined - References - Authors - Cite us

ISSN: 2386-9666 - Last Updated: 28 May 2024


Accepted Name:

Cistanche violacea (Desf.) Hoffmanns. & Link, Fl. Pontug. 1: 320 (1813) (Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk 2018 : 27)

Basionymum / Basionym:

Phelypaea violacea Desf., Fl. Atlant. 2: 60[-61], t. 145 (1798) ["Phelipaea"] (Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk 2018 : 27)

Synonyms:

Homotypic synonyms:

Orobanche violacea (Desf.) Wallr., Orobanches Gen. Diask.: 70 (1825) (Beck 1930: 29; Foley 2001: 30; Boulos 2002: 96)

Cistanche violacea (Desf.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 267 (1890), comb. superfl. (Beck 1930: 29), isonym (Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk 2018 : 27)

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Heterotypic synonyms:

= Phelypaea lutea × violacea Murb., Contr. Fl. Nord-Ouest Afrique 2: 29[-30] (1898). Syn.: Cistanche hybrida Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 31 (1930 [30 Sep 1930]); Cistanche tinctoria × violacea Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 31 (1930 [30 Sep 1930]) (Moreno Moral & al. 2018 : 27). Ind. loc.: "Tunisie. Un seul individu observé près du caravansérail de Bir Saad [Bou Saad Bordj / Burj Bu Sa`d, Gafsa], dans un endroit où les deux espèces génératrices se trouvèrent en abondance". Holotype: "Tunetia meridion. [Gafsa, Tunisie / Tunisia]: S. Iter Algeriensi-Tunetanum, 1896. / Phelypaea lutea Def.× violacea Def. / Murb., Contrib. II (in Acta Soc. Phys. Lund. T. IX) / Entre El Hafay [Al Hufayy] et Bir Saad. / 17.4  leg. & det. S. Murbeck" (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p02970652 - P 02970652.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2015) (Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk 2018 : 27)

= Cistanche hybrida Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 31 (1930 [30 Sep 1930]). Syn.: Phelypaea lutea × violacea Murb., Contr. Fl. Nord-Ouest Afrique 2: 29 (1898) (Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk 2018 : 27)

= Cistanche tinctoria × violacea Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 31 (1930 [30 Sep 1930]) ["Cistanche tinctoria (lutea) × violacea"]. Syn.: Phelypaea lutea × violacea Murb., Contr. Fl. Nord-Ouest Afrique 2: 29 (1898) (Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk 2018 : 27)

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? = Cistanche tubulosa var. albiflora (Gilli) Hadidy in Boulos, Fl. Egypt Checklist 141 (1995) [n.v.]. Syn.: Cistanche tubulosa f. albiflora Gilli in Publ. Cairo Univ. Herb. 5: 87 (1972 [1974]) (Boulos 2002: 95)

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? = Cistanche tubulosa f. albiflora Gilli in Publ. Cairo Univ. Herb. 5: 87 (1972 [1974]) [n.v.]. Syn.: Cistanche tubulosa var. albiflora (Gilli) Hadidy in Boulos, Fl. Egypt Checklist 141 (1995). Ind. loc.: Sinai Peninsula, Egypt (ipni.org/n/887918-1)

= Cistanche violacea f. bicolor Pamp. in Arch. Bot. (Forlì) 12(1): 43 (1936) [Rend. Sem. Fac. Sc. Univ. Cagliari VIII(3): 75 (1938)]. Type: "Herbarium Universitatis florentinae / N. 7365 / Cistanche violacea Hoffm. & Lk. / f. bicolor Pamp. / Libia - Cirenaica / Msus - 20 Mar. 1933 / Leg. R. Pampanini" (FI 003690 in FI (Museo di Storia Naturale dell'Università, Firenze) et Jstor FI 003690) (Lectotypus designated here). Other syntypi from the original collection: C: "Herbarium Universitatis florentinae / N. 7363 / Cistanche violacea Hoffm. & Lk. / f. bicolor Pamp. / Libia - Cirenaica / Steppa di el-Agheila [Al Wahat District] / 14 Mar. 1933 / Leg. R. Pampanini" (FI 003691 in FI (Museo di Storia Naturale dell'Università, Firenze)); C.: "Herbarium Universitatis florentinae / N. 7364 / Cistanche violacea Hoffm. & Lk. / f. bicolor Pamp. / Libia - Cirenaica / esc-Sceleidima, a sud-est di Bengasi / 20 Mar. 1933 / Leg. R. Pampanini" (FI 003692); C.: "Herbarium Universitatis florentinae / N. 7366 / Cistanche violacea Hoffm. & Lk. / f. bicolor Pamp. / Libia - Cirenaica / ez-Zuetina, a nord-est di Agedabia [Ajdabiya (Al Wahat District)] / 11 Apr.1934 / Leg. R. Pampanini & R.E.G. Pichi-Sermolli (FI 003693). Note: the specimen no. 7363 is accompanied by a strip of newspaper with the name of the new taxon handwritten by Pampanini; the specimen no. 7365 is made up of three sheets (Domina & Abuhadra in Cuccuini & al. 2016: 83)

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Misapplied names:

Orobanche phelypaea Willd., Sp. Pl. 3(1): 352 (1800) [nom. illeg.], non Orobanche phelypaea (L.) Wallr., Orobanches Gen. Diask.: 70 (1825) [nom. illeg.]. Ind. loc.: "Habitat in areneis deserti Barbariae". Syn: = Phelypaea violacea Desf., Fl. Atlant. 2: 60, t. 145 (1798) (Willdenow 1800: 352; Hoffmanns. & Link 1813: 320; Cosson & Kralik 1857: 408, sub P. violacea)

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Ind. loc.: "Habitat in arenis deserti prope Tozzer [Tozeur / Tawzar / (توزر‎), 33° 55’ 12’’ N  8° 8’ 24’’ E, oasis aux portes du désert du Sahara, Tozeur Governorate, Tunisie / Tunisia / Túnez]" (Desfontaines 1798: 61); Morocco, North Africa (Beck 1930: 30)].

Typus / Type: "Lectotype (designated here): [as 'Phelipaeaviolacea], Tunisia, Tozeur Governorate: in arenis deserti prope Tozzer [Tozeur / Tawzar], leg. Desfontaines (G 00014078) (Fig. 8). Isolectotype: ditto (P-DF-37/13)" (Moreno Moral & al. 2018 : 27).

Designated by: G. Moreno Moral, Ó. Sánchez Pedraja & R. Piwowarczyk in Phyton (Horn, Austria) 57(1-2): 27 (2018)

Host: Parasitic mainly on Chenopodiaceae species, as well as on other Plumbaginaceae and Zygophyllaceae species, but these host-plants need to be confirmed by new investigations (Annotated Checklist of Host Plants of Orobanchaceae, accessed Aug 2009).

Chenopodiaceae Vent.

Anabasis aretioides Bunge [ Fredolia aretioides (Bunge) Ulbr.]. Algeria and Morocco (Maire 1936: 252, sub C. violacea).

Hammada articulata (Moq.) O. Bolòs & Vigo [= Hammada scoparia (Pomel) Iljin; = Anabasis tamariscifolia L.; = Haloxylon tamariscifolium (L.) Pau]. Algeria, Libya and Morocco (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p04363434 - P 04363434.jpg - hb. Maire; E 00029736; Jahandiez & Maire 1934: 693, sub C. violacea; Jafri 1978: 5, sub C. violacea).

Hammada negevensis Iljin & Zohary [ Haloxylon negevensis (Iljin & Zohary) Boulos]. Israel (photo 319/31954 by Avinoam Danin, sub C. salsa, in Flora of Israel Online, accessed Mar 2012).

Suaeda vera Forssk. ex J.F. Gmel. [ Suaeda fruticosa subsp. vera (Forssk. ex J.F. Gmel.) Maire & Weiller; Suaeda fruticosa auct.]. Morocco (sec. Mimoun Bachiri).

Plumbaginaceae Juss.

Limoniastrum guyonianum Boiss. [= Limoniastrum ouarglense Pomel]. Algeria (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p04363435 - P 04363435.jpg - hb. Maire).

Limoniastrum monopetalum (L.) Boiss. [ Statice monopetala L.]. Tunisia (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p04608139 - P 04608139.jpg, http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p02985969 - P 02985969.jpg et http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p02985973 - P 02985973.jpg; Cosson & Kralik 1857: 409, "Kralik, Plant. Tunetanae, n. 291", sub P. violacea, Beck 1930: 29, sub C. violacea).

Zygophyllaceae R. Br.

Tetraena alba (L. f.) Beier & Thulin [ Zygophyllum album L. f.]. Libya and Tunisia (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p04608139 - P 04608139.jpg, http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p02985969 - P 02985969.jpg et http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p02985973 - P 02985973.jpg; Cosson & Kralik 1857: 409, "Kralik, Plant. Tunetanae, n. 291", sub P. violacea; Jafri 1978: 5, sub C. violacea, Libya).

Comments:

Morphological and taxonomic observations: Cistanche violacea can be confused with C. salsa, which can be distinguished for their densely woolly bracts and bracteoles (Boulos 2002: 94). In Europe it has been recorded from Spain, but these records refer to Cistanche lutea var. violaceoides Moreno Mor., Ó. Sánchez & Piwow. (2018), which are violaceous forms of C. lutea (Desf.) Hoffmanns. & Link (1813) (Beck 1930: 27-29, key; Boulos 2002: 94, key; Ozenda 1991: 388, key).

Chromosomatic number: n = ca. 20; 2n = ca. 40c (Reese 1957; Schneeweiss & al. 2004); n = 30 (Ataei & al. 2014). The Spanish chromosome counts are referable to violaceous forms of C. lutea (Desf.) Hoffmanns. & Link (C. lutea var. violaceoides Moreno Mor., Ó. Sánchez & Piwow.).

Ic.: a, Desfontaines 1798: t. 145 ("Tozzer" [Tozeur, Tunisie]); b, inflorescence (Zerkine, Tunisia); c, flowers (ib.); d, habit (Tozeur, Tunisie, loc. class., François in Picasa, accessed Apr 2009); e; habit and flowers (Djelfa, Algeria; accessed Apr 2009); f, habit (Lybia, Apr 2004, S. Gardt, SIUC (Parasitic Plant Connection); accessed Feb 2006); g, habit (Ziz-Tal, Merzouga- Ziz-Tal - Midelt, Morocco in Flickr, accessed Apr 2009); h, habit (Síla buldozeru, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, accessed Apr 2009); i, habit and flowers ("Ouarzazate, Marruecos" [Quiles, accessed Sep 2010]); j, Ozenda (1991: 387, f. 140 g-h-j); k, "Curtis’s Botanical Magazine, vol. 129 [ser. 3, vol. 59]: t. 7911 (1903) [M. Smith]" in www.plantillustrations.org, accessed Feb 2012; l, Laghouat, Algeria (P 04410184 - hb. Faurel); m, Oued R’ir, Algeria (P 04363435 - hb. Maire); n, Bir el- Gobi, Lybia (P 02970612); o, Taguenza, Morocco (P 04363434 - hb. Maire); p, Biskra, Algeria (P 03004144).

Distribution: Mediterranean Region distribution: Algeria, Egypt, Israel / Palestine, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Spain [in error], Saudi Arabia and Tunisia.

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Specimens examined and literature records.

Algeria / الجزائر‎ / Argelia / Algérie (Cosson & Kralik 1857: 409, sub P. violacea; Beck 1930: 30, sub C. violacea (Desf.) Beck; Jahandiez & Maire 1934: 693, sub C. violacea; photo by Abderrazak Marouf in Algeria native plants, accessed Mar 2012)

Alger / Algiers: "Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Hassi el Djual, sud de la province d'Alger / E. Cosson, 7 Mai 1858." (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p02985979 - P 02985979.jpg - hb. Drake - http://www.gbif.org/occurrence/437780146 - https://explore.recolnat.org/occurrence/B8E95AFAF64B42D691B0FFC5B5934721; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); "Algier!" (Beck 1930: 30, sub C. violacea).

Batna: "Found in sand, in the region of M'doukal [Amdoukal] / Batna-Algeria, 27 Mar 2016" (photo observations/3010053 by Souhila in iNaturalist.org; accessed Feb 2020).

Bayadh (El): "Phelipaea violacea Desf. / El Abiodh Sidi Cheikh / 3-5-1899 / L. Chevallier" (P 02986945; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015).

Biskra: "Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Biskra / sud de la prov. de Constantine, Algérie / Cosson, 4 Avril 1858" (P 02985975; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "B. Balansa, Pl. d'Algérie, 1853 / 846. Phelipaea violacea, Desf. (Coss.) / Biskra.— Parasite sur les chenopodées frutescentes [Chenopodiaceae Vent.]. / 25 mars." (P 02985972 - hb. Drake, P 02985981 et P 03944871 - hb. Giraudias; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); idem (CLF 335546; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018); idem (https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1141112 - WAG 1141112.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2020); "In Sahara Algeriensi ! (Balansa pl. Alger, exsicc. n. 846)" (Cosson & Kralik 1857: 409, sub P. violacea); "Herbier L. Chevallier Précigné (Sarthe) / Phelippaea violacea Desf. / (fl. violet foncée) / Sahara: Biskra, la plaine de / l'oued, le long de la ligne / Avril 1890 / ..." (P 03004144; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); "Cistanche violacea (Desf.) Hoffmanns. & Link, Orobanchaceae / Algerien: Biskra, 1908, gezeichnet von G. Schweinfurth [Bildtext: Phelipaea / violacea Dfs. // Biskra 15 März 1908 // auf Limoniastrum [Plumbaginaceae Juss.], auf Anabasis und auf Haloxylon [Chenopodiaceae Vent.] // Kelchz. / abgerundet // n. Gr. // n. Gr. // ]" (BGBM: B_SZ_0000297 et B_SZ_0000298; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016); "Tunis! um Biskra (Balansa, PI. Alg. n. 846)" (Beck 1930: 30, sub C. violacea (Desf.) Beck).

Dakhla-Oued Ed-Dahab / Oued Ed-Dahab-Lagouira

Oued Ed-Dahab Province: "Oued el Dahab, EH [22°41'16.2"N 14°29'35.1"W, near Aousserd], 17 Jan 2019" (photo observations/19740173 by javielorriaga in iNaturalist.org; accessed Feb 2020).

Djelfa: habit and flowers (Wilaya de Djelfa, Algeria) in JLBG's Wilaya de Djelfa Travel Page; accessed Apr 2009.

Ghardaïa: "Phelipaea violacea Desf. (junior) / El Goléah [El Menia / El Ménéa / El Golea] et nuch Garden, février 1880 // M. Pascal Jourdan" (P 02985982; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015 [young specimens should be confirmed]); "Plantae Saharae algeriensis / 468. Phelipaea violacea Desf.  ... / Ghardaïa: in aridis, Salsolaceis [Chenopodiaceae Vent.] insita. / 8 Mart. 1902 / L. Chevallier" (P 02985976 - hb. E. Cosson et P 02986948; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); idem (MPU 238424 - hb. Mouillefarine; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018); "Plantae Saharae algeriensis / Phelipaea violacea Desf.  / El Goléa [El Menia / El Ménéa / El Golea]: sables sales à / Ben-Bachur / 31 Mars 1902 / L. Chevallier / ..." (P 02986947; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Ghardaïa ... El Goléa [El Menia / El Ménéa / El Golea] ... 4° Dans les dunes plus ou moins élevées on retrouve la plupart des espèces ci-dessus, et en outre" (Chevallier 1903: 674, 682, sub P. violacea); "in der Sahara bei El Kouah Chardaia [Ghardaïa] (L. Chevallier in Bull. herb. Boiss. 2. sér. III. [1903] 674)" (Beck 1930: 30, sub C. violacea); "Sebkhet El Melah located in El Menia (Ghardaïa, Algeria) during April and May, 2015" (Alioua & al. 2016, Fig. 2B. sub Orobanche cernua).

Laghouat: "Phelipaea violacea Desf. / environs de Laghouat / province d'Alger / Dr. V. Beboud, mai 1854." (P 02985980; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Phelipaea violacea Desf. ... / Laghouat (Algéria) / vivant le 10 avril 1868." (P 02985984 - hb. Grenier; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Plantae Saharae algeriensis / 4683. Phelipaea violacea Desf.  ... / Nili [Oued Nili, Laghouat (Cosson 1882: 89)] Ghardaïa: in aridis, Salsolaceis insita. / 8 Mart. 1902 / 12-4-1899 / L. Chevallier" (P 03944872 - hb. L. Giraudias; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Herbier L. Chevallier, Précigné (Sarthe). / Phelipaea violacea Desf. / ... / Sahara: Nili à 50 kil. ... Laghoua B) Brézina [Brezina. - 0., Sah., I9. Alt. env. 850™ (Goss. An.), 827™ et 830™ (Mar.). - Ksar et oasis sur l'Oued Seggueur. (Cosson 1882: 38)]. 24-4-1899 / 12-4-1899 / Legi L. Chevallier" (P 02986949; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Herbier L. Chevallier, Précigné (Sarthe). / Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Sahara: El Maïa [Maïa (El-). - 0., Sah., K9. Alt. 945™ (Ét.-Maj.). - Ksar au SO de Tadjerouna (Cosson 1882: 75)], vers Hassi / Menayed. / 26-4-1899 / Legi: L. Chevallier" (P 02986946; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Herbier Faurel / Cistanche violacea (Desf.) G. Beck / (= Phelypaea violacea Desf.) / Près de la citerne de Djebb-Guerg, / à 50 km environ au Sud de Laghouat. / (Sud algérois). / 28 mars 1955." (P 04410184 - hb. Faurel; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011).

M'Sila: "Phelypaea violacea / Bou Saâda" (MPU 238425 - hb. Battandier - hb. Maire; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018); "N45, Maarif [35°22'22.7"N 4°15'42.8"E], Algérie, 1 Abr 2019" (photo observations/21919451 by Larbi Afoutni in iNaturalist.org; accessed Feb 2020 [on Hammada sp. (Chenopodiaceae Vent.)?]).

Naâma [unconfirmed]: "Herb. Dr. Bonnet / Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Entre Le Glimem Ben Mouca et Aïn Sefra [?] 18 avril 88 [1888]" (P 04215472 - hb. Th. Delacour; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015). 

Oran [unconfirmed]: "Um Oran (Boissier et Reuter, Debeaux, Durieu)" (Beck 1930: 30, sub C. violacea) [see C. mauritanica].

Ouargla / Warqla: "N.º 13 / Dhanoun. Phelipaea / violacea - Orobanchacées? / Hassi-Medjira [31°26'09.8"N 5°42'06.0"E, Mjeira] // Mission d'exploraton du chemin de fer transsaharien. / Hassi-Medjira / M. le Dr. Guiard / Reçu en Aout 1880" (P 02970643; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "468a Phelipaea violacea Desf. / ... / Sidi Yahia (Oued Rhir) / in Salsis / 4 Maj. 1904 L. Chevallier" (https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1141113 - WAG 1141113.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2020); "Dr. R. Maire itenera Algerica 1933 / Herbier de l'Afrique du Nord / Cistanche violacea (Desf.) Beck / In salsuginosis ditionis Oued Rhir [Oued R’ir] / prope El Arfiane, ad radices Limo- / niastri Guyoniani [Limoniastrum guyonianum Boiss. (Plumbaginaceae Juss.)] / 19-3" (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p04363435 - P 04363435.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011).

Oued (El): "Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Sidi Krelil [Sidi Khellil (Cosson 1882: 106)] / sud de la prov. de Constantine, Algérie / E. Cosson, 12 Avril 1858" (P 02985977; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Nº 250 Mission des Chott / El-Ba'adja [Baadja (Ogla El-). - C, Sah., T7. Alt. -22m (Par.). - Puits et lieu de station à l'extrémité NE du Chott Sellem (Cosson 1882: 26)] / 27 dec. 1874 - 5 jaunv. 1875 / Phelipaea violacea Desf. // M. Duveyrier - Reçu le 29 décembre 1894" (P 02970644; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015 [cf., specimen bad preserved]).

Sahara / al-Kubrā / The Great Desert: "Toute la région saharienne" (Pomel 1876: 107, sub P. violacea). "in den Dünen der Sahara (nach A. Lendner in Bull. herb. Boiss. 2. sér. III. [1903] 629)" (Beck 1930: 30, sub C. violacea); "Sur le racines de Haloxylon tamariscifolium [Hammada articulata (Moq.) O. Bolòs & Vigo] dans les steppes désertiques ... De l'Algérie à la Cyrénaïque [Cyrenaica, Libya]" (Jahandiez & Maire 1934: 693, sub C. violacea).

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Egypt / مصر / Egipto / Égypte / Ägypten [see Comments and C. salsa] (Gilli 1974: 87, loc. class. of C. tubulosa f. albiflora; Greuter & al. 1989: 255, "?", sub C. violacea; Boulos 2002: 96, sub C. tubulosa var. albiflora; Boulos 2002: 96, sub C. salsa; Boulos 2002: 96, sub C. violacea)

Alexandria Governorate: "Accordind to el-Hadidy in (Boulos 1995), C. violacea is known in Egypt only from Burg el-Arab, western Mediterranean district. I have not seen any authentic material of this species collected from Egypt. Meanwhile, Täckholm (1974) and Greuter et al. (1989) consider its occurrence in Egypt uncertain." (Boulos 2002: 96, sub C. violacea).

Matrouh Governorate: "Western Desert" (photos by P. Pokorný, sub O. cernua, in Common Plantas of the Western Desert of Egypt, accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2012 (on Chenopodiaceae species).

North Sinai Governorate: Sinai Peninsula (Gilli 1974: 87, loc. class. of C. tubulosa f. albiflora); "Sinai" (Boulos 2002: 96, sub C. tubulosa var. albiflora); "sandy desert wadis, mainly on woody species of Chenopodiaceae. Sinai" (Boulos 2002: 96, sub C. salsa); North Sinai (twitter 1108440183064662018 [photo/1, photo/2 and photo/3] by Chris Thorogood in Twitter for iPhone; accessed Feb 2020).

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Israel / Israël / Palestine / Palaestina (Feinbrun-Dothan 1978: 210, t. 355 C. salsa; Beautiful Israel in Green Violet Cistanche, accessed Jan 2016; Danin & Fragman-Sapir 2016+. Flora of Israel Online, sub C. salsa, accessed Mar 2012) [see Comments and C. salsa]

South District: "C. Negev [Negev desert]; Dead Sea area; E. Gilead [Galaad / Transjordan]" (Feinbrun-Dothan 1978: 210, t. 355 C. salsa (C.A. Mey.) G. Beck [apparently, in this drawing the bracts are glabrous like in the case of C. violacea]); "Flora Palaestina / mus. Bot. Turic. (Zürich) / Cistanche salsa (C.A. Meyer) G. Beck / Hab.: Israel; Sourtern Negev. Ein Zin, rocky / valley with rivulet and date-palm oasis W.N.W. / of Chatzeva. Alt. 60 m. /... Corolle pure / white exc. for two yellow welts on lower lip. / Buds pinkish. ... / Leg.: K.U. Kramer no. 7199 / d.d. 24-III 1980" (U 1469496; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018); "I always thought that this species occurs is salty locations, but found it this time is a sandy area near Nizzana [Tel Nitsana / ניצנה / Nitzana, Negev desert] on the Israel-Egypt border", 2007-03-17 (photo 100672 by Ori Fragman Sapir, sub C. salsa, in TrekNature, accessed Mar 2012); "Beer Sheva, Judean Desert", 2006-02-25 (photo 62872 by Ori Fragman Sapir, sub C. salsa, in TrekNature, accessed Mar 2019); "Beer Sheba, S of Tzukim", 2011-02-12 (photo 252930 by Ori Fragman Sapir, sub C. salsa, in TrekNature, accessed Mar 2019); "Beer Sheva, Shunra Sands", 2016-03-04 (photo 305792 et 305783 by Ishi Talmon, sub C. salsa, in TrekNature, accessed Mar 2019); A Cistanche salsa blooming in purple and yellow, in Chalutza Dunes, the West Negev 2006 (photo 51-4151_e.asp by Efrat Nakash, sub C. salsa, in Flora of Israel Gallery, accessed March 2012); "West Negev, Israel, march 2011" (photo 1300818319 by 2006-2009 Limar, sub C. salsa, in Flora, accessed Mar 2012); "Western Negev, Halutza sands" (photo 271/27127 and 271/27126 by Eli Livne, sub C. salsa, in Flora of Israel Online, accessed Mar 2012); "Arava Valley, Paran / Parasite on roots of Haloxylon negevensis [Haloxylon negevensis (Iljin & Zohary) Boulos; Hammada negevensis Iljin & Zohary (Chenopodiaceae)]" (photo 319/31954 by Avinoam Danin, sub C. salsa, in Flora of Israel Online, accessed Mar 2012); "Sands Wildcat 19:02:10 / לאורך כביש 221 [Along Route 221 Nitzana] לניצנה פרחו פרטים מ ש ג ע י ם ביופיים של יחנוק" (photo, sub C. salsa, in Flora of Israel Online, accessed Mar 2012); "Israel, Makhtesh Ramon [Negev] 29 March 2007" (photo id35621/ by Nir Ofir det. Holger Uhlich, sub C. violacea, in BioLib.cz; accessed Feb 2020 [on Hammada negevensis Iljin & Zohary (Chenopodiaceae)?]); "HaDarom [30°57'41.6"N 35°02'42.8"E, Negev desert], IL", 6 Apr 2019 (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/22708934 by voegelein, sub C. salsa, in iNaturalist; accessed Feb 2020 [glabrous plants]); "[Beerseba] באר שבע, ישראל [30°39'28.8"N 35°13'23.5"E, Ein Yahav]", 6 Apr 2019 (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/32331601 by Noam, sub C. salsa, in iNaturalist; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2020 [the yellow specimens correspond to C. tinctoria (= C. tubulosa) and the specimen that shows corollas white with purple lobes correspond to C. violacea, good photography and very illustrative]).

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Jordan / اَلأُرْدُنّ / Al-'Urdunn / Jordania / Jordanie / Jordanien (Boissier 1879: 501, P. salsa; Post 1896: 603, "P. incana, Paine, belongs to this species"; Bornmüller 1904: 686, sub C. salsa; Beck 1930: 36, sub C. salsa; Feinbrun-Dothan 1978: 210, t. 355 C. salsa (C.A. Mey.) G. Beck [apparently, in this drawing the bracts are glabrous like in the case of C. violacea]; photos set-72157621770110871 by Tim Melling, sub C. salsa, in Jordan; accessed Mar 2012. Obs. this species can be confused with C. salsa, which can be distinguished for their densely woolly bracts and bracteoles [see Comments and C. salsa]).

Aqaba Governorate: Cistanche salsa (C.A.Mey.) Beck, East of Jordan, J.A. Paine, Collection Number: Com10/ 74. Palestine Exploration Society (K 000283208, n.v.); "Palestina trans Jordanum [Transjordan / Lordship of Oultrejordain / Oultrejourdain] (Payme!)" (Boissier 1879: 501, P. salsa); "Eastern Moab" (Post 1896: 603, "P. incana, Paine, belongs to this species"); "Palaestina" (Bornmüller 1904: 686, sub C. salsa); "Palaestina, jenseits des Jordan (Payne nach Boissier)" (Beck 1930: 36, sub C. salsa); "C. Negev [Negev desert]; Dead Sea area; E. Gilead [Galaad / Transjordan]" (Feinbrun-Dothan 1978: 210, t. 355 sub C. salsa); "Aqaba, Jordania / Desierto arenoso. Parásita sobre Atriplex halimus [?, on Chenopodiaceae]", 27.03.2010 (photo 126555 by in biodiversidadvirtual.org, accessed Feb 2015); "Violett Cistanche Cistanche (Salsa) oder Violett Broomrape parasitären Pflanze Blüte in der Wüste Wadi Rum, Jordanien - Bild-ID: RJPRJ2" (alamy 235300074 accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2019 [glabrous plants]); "Violett Cistanche Cistanche (Salsa) Auch Violett Broomrape Blüte in der Wüste. Diese Pflanze ist eine parasitäre Mitglied des broomrape Familie. Foto - Bild-ID: RA6M0A" - "Violett Cistanche Cistanche (Salsa) Auch Violett Broomrape Blüte in der Wüste. Diese Pflanze ist eine parasitäre Mitglied des broomrape Familie. Foto - Bild-ID: RA55E0" (alamy 79757077.html; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2019 [glabrous plants]); "Aqaba [30°16'31.1"N 35°17'09.1"E, Arabah]", 19 Mar 2015 (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/7123053 by Dominic Mitchell, sub C. salsa, iNaturalist; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2019 [glabrous plants]); "südlich Wadi Rum", 27 Mar 2015 (photos 32/54395.jpg, 32/54396.jpg et 32/54397.jpg in https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/1270697561 - FR-0118667 (Herbarium Senckenbergianum (FR)), sub C. salsa; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2019 [glabrous plants]); "Unnamed Road [29°25'56.1"N 35°24'23.4"E, Wadi Rum], Jordanie" 19 Jul 2018 (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/14505767 et naturalista 14505767 by Marlyse Gewinner, sub C. salsa, in iNaturalist et Naturalista.mx; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2019 [glabrous plants]); "Bait Ali Lodge, Wadi Rum", 27 Mar 2019 (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/21693208 by Stefano Doglio, sub C. salsa, in iNaturalist; accessed Feb 2020 [glabrous plants]); Wadi Rum (https://picpanzee.com/media/2019696873041753014_734148890 by Annette Hansen in Picpanzee: Instagram Online; accessed Feb 2020).

Mafraq Governorate: "Burq'a, Rwaished District [32°40'21.4"N 38°11'35.2"E], Jordan", 20 Feb 2006 (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/37623633 by Lee E. Harding, sub C. salsa, in iNaturalist; accessed Feb 2020 [cf., glabrous plants]).

"A parasite plant species on Atriplex and Tamarix which is common to Jordan. Geographic Range Recorded in Balqa, Karak, Tafila, Petra, Shobak, Aqaba, Dead Sea area and Wadi Araba." (Taifour 2017: 628, sub C. salsa [see Comments]).

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Libya /  ‏ليبيا‎  / Libia / Libye / Lybien (Don 1838: 633, sub P. violacea; Cosson & Kralik 1857: 409, sub P. violacea; Beck 1930: 30, sub C. violacea; Pampanini 1930: 410, sub C. violacea; Jahandiez & Maire 1934: 693, sub C. violacea; Jafri 1978: 5, 6 f. 2, sub C. violacea; Domina & Abuhadra in Cuccuini & al. 2016: 83, sub C. violacea)

Cyrenaica / Barqah / Berqa

"Phelipaea violacea Desf. / In planitia littorali Cyrenaica / inter Bengasi [Benghazi (Benghazi District)] et Schadabia / G. Rohlfs, 9 Mart, 1869" (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p02985959 - P 02985959.jpg - hb. E. Cosson - http://sonneratphoto.mnhn.fr/2011/10/13/7/P02985959.jpg - http://www.gbif.org/occurrence/438113072 - https://explore.recolnat.org/occurrence/0C812A42EAAD423585E5FDC0E3D9194E; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); 1. "Nº 1120 Mission des Chott / Bir el- Gòbi [Bir el- Gobi / Bi'r al Ghabi (Butnan District / Tubruq District / Tobruk District)] / 18 mars 1875 / en arabe: dhânoûn". – 2. "Nº 1121 ...". – 3. "... M. Duveyrier – Reçu le 29 décember 1894" (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p02970612 - P 02970612.jpg - http://sonneratphoto.mnhn.fr/2011/10/17/4/P02970612.jpg - http://www.gbif.org/occurrence/438437913 - https://explore.recolnat.org/occurrence/0BFC96F418CB400E94519D96641ABA5F; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011 [bracteoles shorter than calyx and corolla with dark lobes (cf.)]); "in der Cyrenaica (nach Durand et Barratte, l.c.)" (Beck 1930: 30, sub C. violacea); "Fra Agedabia [Ajdabiya / Agedabia / Ajdabya (Al Wahat District)] e Bir Ressam (Rohlfs, 1869 [DB]). — Bengasi [Benghazi] (Haimann, 1881 [DB])" (Pampanini 1930: 410, sub C. violacea); "Sur le racines de Haloxylon tamariscifolium [Hammada articulata (Moq.) O. Bolòs & Vigo; Haloxylon tamariscifolium (L.) Pau; Anabasis tamariscifolia L. (Chenopodiaceae)] dans les steppes désertiques ... De l'Algérie à la Cyrénaïque" (Jahandiez & Maire 1934: 693, sub C. violacea); "Gulf of Sirte [Gulf of Sidra], Sebkha, on Atriplex halimus ... 23.3.1970, P.H. Davis 49831 (ULT) ... Ajdabiya and Benghazi by Pampanini..." (Jafri 1978: 5, sub C. violacea); "Herbarium Universitatis florentinae / N. 7365 / Cistanche violacea Hoffm. & Lk. / f. bicolor Pamp. / Libia - Cirenaica / Msus - 20 Mar. 1933 / Leg. R. Pampanini" (FI 003690 in FI (Museo di Storia Naturale dell'Università, Firenze) et Jstor FI 003690) (Lectotypus designated here). Other syntypi from the original collection: C: "Herbarium Universitatis florentinae / N. 7363 / Cistanche violacea Hoffm. & Lk. / f. bicolor Pamp. / Libia - Cirenaica / Steppa di el-Agheila [Al Wahat District] / 14 Mar. 1933 / Leg. R. Pampanini" (FI 003691 in FI (Museo di Storia Naturale dell'Università, Firenze)); C.: "Herbarium Universitatis florentinae / N. 7364 / Cistanche violacea Hoffm. & Lk. / f. bicolor Pamp. / Libia - Cirenaica / esc-Sceleidima, a sud-est di Bengasi / 20 Mar. 1933 / Leg. R. Pampanini" (FI 003692); C.: "Herbarium Universitatis florentinae / N. 7366 / Cistanche violacea Hoffm. & Lk. / f. bicolor Pamp. / Libia - Cirenaica / ez- Zuetina, a nord-est di Agedabia [Ajdabiya] / 11 Apr.1934 / Leg. R. Pampanini & R.E.G. Pichi-Sermolli (FI 003693). Note: the specimen no. 7363 is accompanied by a strip of newspaper with the name of the new taxon handwritten by Pampanini; the specimen no. 7365 is made up of three sheets (Domina & Abuhadra in Cuccuini & al. 2016: 83, sub C. violacea f. bicolor Pamp.).

Fezzan: "c. 70 km from Bugrain towards Hun, sandy ground, common ... parasitic on roots of Chenopod [Chenopodiaceae], 27.2.1976, S.M.H. Jafri 6415 (ULT)" (Jafri 1978: 5, sub C. violacea).

Tripolitania / Tripolitana / Ţarābulus

Greater Tripoli: "Tripoli" (Don 1838: 633, sub P. violacea); 1. "L. Kralik, Plant. Tunetanae, n. 291. / Phelipaea violacea Desf. / In arenosis maritimis, Gabes 25 mars 1854 / In Zygophyllo albo [Zygophyllum album L. f.; Tetraena alba (L. f.) Beier & Thulin (Zygophyllaceae R. Br.)] et Statice monopetala [L.; = Limoniastrum monopetalum (L.) Boiss. (Plumbaginaceae)] parasita. / Arabibos Zeb Boumi id act Membrum virile / Christianorum [?]". – 2. "... / Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Libya [m. Cosson?]" (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p02985973 - P 02985973.jpg - http://www.gbif.org/occurrence/439446029 - https://explore.recolnat.org/occurrence/2DDCFF12F30A477E88412FE3FFCACCA8; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015 [the sheet contains two specimens, the tunisian specimen on the left side and the libyan on the right side (this was cut along the stem into two parts)]); "In littore Tripolitano (Viv., loc. cit.)" (Cosson & Kralik 1857: 409, sub P. violacea); "an den Küsten von Tripolis (Viviani)" (Beck 1930: 30, sub C. violacea); "A-3 Tripoli coast, parasite on Zygophyllum, 29.4.1970, I.I. Chaudhri s.n. (ULT)" (Jafri 1978: 5, sub C. violacea).

Jabal al Gharbi: T: Gebel Nefoussa [Nafusa Mountains], 60 km S.E of Giado [Jadu], on Haloxylon articulata [Hammada scoparia (Pomel) Iljin = H. articulata (Moq.) O. Bolòs & Vigo (Chenopodiaceae)], 16 March 1970, Davis, Peter Hadland 49622 (E 00029736).

Misrata: "between Bougrain and Bu Ngem [Abu Njaym / Golaia], parasitic on Hommada scoparia [Hammada scoparia (Pomel) Iljin = H. articulata (Moq.) O. Bolòs & Vigo (Chenopodiaceae)], sandy ground ... , 27.2.1976, S.M.H. Jafri 6300 (ULT)" (Jafri 1978: 5, sub C. violacea); Cistanche violacea (Desf.) G.Beck / Tripolitania, desert between Misurata [Misrata] & Syrte [Sirte] / 28.03.1939 (specimens.kew.org 3927.000 [n.v.]).

Nalut District: "A-2 15 km after Kabaw [Kabao / Cabao], towards Mizda ... 10.4.1974, S.I. Ali 1948 (UTL); Gudain, 23.3.1968, L. Boulos 3570 (ULT); Kabau, near the bifurcation of road ... , 29.3.1976, S.M.H. Jafri 6594 (ULT)" (Jafri 1978: 5, sub C. violacea).

Sahara / al-Kubrā / The Great Desert: "Toute la région saharienne" (Pomel 1876: 107, sub P. violacea). "Sahara" (Battandier 1890: 656; Durand & Barratte 1910: 182; Jafri 1978: 5, sub C. violacea); Lybia, April 2004, habit by S. Gardt in SIUC - Parasitic Plant Connection (accessed Feb 2006).

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Morocco / المغرب‎, / Marruecos / Maroc / Marokko (Pomel 1876: 107, sub P. violacea; Beck 1930: 30, sub C. violacea; Cistanche violacea, fotografiert in Marokko 2010, accessed Mar 2012)

Dakhla-Oued Ed-Dahab Region / Oued Ed-Dahab-Lagouira

Aousserd Province: "Oued Jenna, Aousserd [Ausert / Auserd, 22°32'11.0"N 14°17'09.0"W], Western Sahara - January 22 2018" (photo larsfoto.se 13717-violet-cistanche?res=1050 by Lars Petersson in My World of Bird Phjotography; accessed Feb 2020).

Drâa-Tafilalet Region

Errachidia Province: SE of Tazenakht 2010-05-01 (photos 8357 [64024 and 64025] by Dieter Butter and Helmut Haas in Dressler & al., 2014+, African Plants - A Photo Guide; accessed Mar 2018); "Errachidia Province [31°47'23.3"N 4°14'20.9"W, Valée de Ziz], Morocco, 20 Mar 2018" (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/18924501 by Bob McCoy in iNaturalist; accessed Feb 2020 [on Hammada sp. (Chenopodiaceae Vent.)?]).

Ouarzazate Province: "Ouarzazate, Marruecos" (photos by J. Quiles Hoyo in Flora destacada de Marruecos - Flora silvestre del Mediterráneo, accessed Sep 2010).

Guelmim-Oued Noun Region

Guelmim Province: "Guelmim [28°57'17.9"N 10°00'30.0"W], Marokko, 6 Mar 2011" (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/9429505 by Christian Langner in iNaturalist; accessed Feb 2020); "Guelmim [28°54'49.2"N 10°09'23.5"W], Guelmim - Es-Semara, Morocco, 3 Mar 2014" (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/38087105 by https://www.inaturalist.org/people/ticho123 in iNaturalist; accessed Feb 2020).

Marrakesh-Tensift-El Haouz Region

Al Haouz Province: Taferiate, photo FI14_01 by M. Velayos 2001.

Meknès-Tafilalet Region

Midelt Province: "Collecteur: J. Mordant / 918 / 9.4.1969 Maroc / Ksar es Souk Gourrama / Reg / ... violet / ... / Cistanche phelypaea ... / ... Det. J.P. Lebrun" (P 04410193; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2015); Ziz-Tal, Merzouga - Ziz-Tal - Midelt, Morocco (photo in flickr, accessed Apr 2009).

Oriental / Tagmudant Region

Figuig Province: "Parasite sur l'Anabasis aretioides Coss. et Moq. [Chenopodiaceae Vent.] au N de Figuig" (Maire 1936: 252, sub C. violacea).

Nador Province: "Cazaza" (photo 3204678995 by taxdir [Manuel Tapia Claro] in Melilla entorno natural, accessed Mar 2012 [this species corresponds to C. mauritanica (woolly bracts and calyx)]); Iaazanene, Bouyafar, apparently parasitizing Suaeda vera Forssk. ex J.F. Gmel. [Suaeda fruticosa auct.], 19 Feb 2019, photo CIMG2900 by Mimoun Bachiri; Cazaza (Bouyafar), apparently parasitizing Suaeda vera Forssk. ex J.F. Gmel., 28 Jan 2020, leg. Mimoun Bachiri (photos by Mimoun Bachiri P1280008-P1280011).

Souss-Massa Region

Agadir-Ida Ou Tanane Prefecture: "Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Agadir / Sud-Ouest du Maroc / Mardochée 1875" (P 02985974; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Foumalili et partie septentrionale / du district d'Ida Ouchemlal ["Ida-Oughemlal. - m. - District montagneux du SO du Maroc méridional indépendant, S d'Agadir, NE du district de Tazeroualt." (Cosson 1882: 64)], Sud-Ouest du Maroc / Mardochée 1876 / herb. E. Cosson" (P 02985978; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "im Südwesten von Marokko bei Mardochée [Sud-Ouest du Maroc, Mardochée]..." (Beck 1930: 30, sub C. violacea); "Dr. R. Maire iter Maroccanum XXV / Socio Dre E. Wilczek 1935 / Herbier de l'Afrique du Nord / Cistanche violacea (Desf.) Beck / In Anti-Atlantis ditione Taguenza, ad / radices Haloxyli tamariscifolii [= Haloxylon tamariscifolium Pau; = Anabasis tamariscifolia L.; = Hammada articulata (Moq.) O. Bolòs & Vigo (Chenopodiaceae Vent.)], 1300 m / corolla alba violaceo-marginata / palatato luteo / 19-4" (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p04363434 - P 04363434.jpg - hb. Maire; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); "Agadir ... um Chtouka [Chtouka-Ait-Baha] (nach Cosson!)" (Beck 1930: 30, sub C. violacea); "...Foumalili, im Distrikte d'Ida Ouchetulal [Oued Ouchtar?]..." (Beck 1930: 30, sub C. violacea).

Taroudant Province: "Cistanche violacea looking pretty damn good near Taliouine" (photos twitter 977659791496671234 [twitter 977659791496671234/photo/1 et twitter 977659791496671234/photo/2] in Wildlife Travel; accessed Feb 2020).

Tiznit Province: "Tiznit [29°15'11.1"N 9°13'16.2"W], Marokko, 21 Mar 2010" (photo observations/37010426 by tomheijnen in iNaturalist.org; accessed Feb 2020).

Sahara / al-Kubrā / The Great Desert: "Toute la région saharienne" (Pomel 1876: 107, sub P. violacea); Sahara, Morocco (photo 21509 by Nicklas Strömberg; accessed Feb 2012); "Cistanche violacea, fotografiert in Marokko" by Phil41, accessed Feb 2012; Cistanche violacea by René Baud, Fouad Msanda, Jean-Claude Thiaudière, Abdelmonaim Homrani Bakali in Plant Biodiversity of South-Western Morocco - Jean-Paul Peltier, 2006-2016 (Last modified on January 18, 2016) - accessed Feb 2012 et Jun 2016; photos 1, 2, 3 by Jan Koeman, Marocco in Plantillustrations.org, accessed Feb 2012; "Sahara, Morocco" (photo 101282 by Nicklas Strömberg, accessed Mar 2012); "Sur le racines de Haloxylon tamariscifolium [= Haloxylon tamariscifolium Pau; = Hammada articulata (Moq.) O. Bolòs & Vigo (Chenopodiaceae Vent.)] dans les steppes désertiques ... De l'Algérie à la Cyrénaïque [Cyrenaica, Libya]" (Jahandiez & Maire 1934: 693, sub C. violacea; Maire 1936: 252, sub C. violacea).

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Saudi Arabia / as-Su‘ūdiyyah / Arabia Saudita / Arabie saoudite / Saudi-Arabien (Collenette 1999: 587; Foley 2004: 236, sub C. violacea; Parasitic flora of Saudi Arabia [Site maintained by Jacob Thomas, Herbarium, Dept. of Botany & Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA, accessed Mar 2012]; Flora of Saudi Arabia - Plant Diversity in Saudi Arabia, accessed Feb 2020).

Al-Jawf Region / Al-Jouf: 1. "Thaniyat Camp, 24 March 1982, a root parasite either on Atriplex leucocladus [this species is probably the host] or Astragalus spinosus Leg. I.S. Collenette 3469". 2. "Cistanche tubulosa (Schrenk) R. Wight  Det. A. Gilli". 3. "Cistanche violaceae (Desf.) Hoffmanns. & Link Det. Najibeh Ataei" (E 00029712 - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/574750566; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018, sub C. violacea!); "Thaniyat Camp [Thanīyat Ţurayf], near Turayf, perhaps parasitic on either Atriplex leucoclada or Astragalus spinosus[?]. 2.725 ft." (Collenette 1999: 587; Foley 2004: 236, sub C. violacea). 

Al-Qassim Region [unconfirmed]: "The flowering stalk parts of Cistanche violacea were collected from the arid areas in Qassim region, Saudi Arabia, during the short springtime in February 2017. In the collection area, the plant was authenticated by Prof. Dr. Gamal E. El-Ghazali ... Cistanche violacea was found parasitizing a desert plant known as Haloxylon salicornicum (Figure 1)" (Abdallah 2017: 240, sub C. violacea; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2020, sub C. tinctoria [C. tubulosa]).

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Spain / España / Espagne / Spanien [uncorfimed]

C. violacea has been recorded from Spain, but these records are referable to violaceous forms of  C. lutea (Desf.) Hoffmanns. & Link (C. lutea var. violaceoides Moreno Mor., Ó. Sánchez & Piwow.).

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Tunisia / تونس / Tunisie / Túnez (Desfontaines 1798: 61, loc. class. of P. violacea; Cosson & Kralik 1857: 409, sub P. violacea; Pomel 1876: 107, sub P. violacea; Murbeck 1898: 30 et Beck 1930: 32, loc. class. of Phelypaea lutea × violacea, Cistanche hybrida Beck; Beck 1930: 30, sub C. violacea; Jahandiez & Maire 1934: 693, sub C. violacea; Moreno Moral & al. 2018 : 27, lectotype of P. violacea)

Bizerte [unconfirmed]: "Nº 1070 Mission des Chott / Bîr Bôu Râs / 17 mars 1875 / ... / en arabe: dhânoûn. / Phelipaea violacea Desf. // M. Duveyrier - Reçu le 29 décembre 1894" (P 02970645; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015).

Djerba / Jerba / Jarbah / Gelves: "Cistanche violacea / 17 février 2013 - Djerba Tunisie" (photos in Flore de Djerba in http://www.orchid-nord.com/, accessed Feb 2015).

Gabès: "L. Kralik, Plant. Tunetanae, n. 291. / Phelipaea violacea Desf. / In arenosis maritimis, Gabes 25 mars 1854 / In Zygophyllo albo [Zygophyllum album L. f.; Tetraena alba (L. f.) Beier & Thulin (Zygophyllaceae R. Br.)] et Statice monopetala [L.; = Limoniastrum monopetalum (L.) Boiss. (Plumbaginaceae)] parasita. / Arabibos Zeb Boumi id act Membrum virile / Christianorum [?]" (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p04608139 - P 04608139.jpg, http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p02985969 - P 02985969.jpg et http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p02985973 - P 02985973.jpg - http://www.gbif.org/occurrence/439446029 - https://explore.recolnat.org/occurrence/2DDCFF12F30A477E88412FE3FFCACCA8 [the sheet contains two specimens, the tunisian specimen on the left side and the libyan on the right side (this was cut along the stem into two parts)]; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Phelipaea violacea Desf. / sur le Gypsophila compressa [?] / ... / Gabes / Leg. Kralik  25 mars 1854" (P 04409250; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Oct 2016); "in arenosis maritimis prope Gabes (Kralik pi. Tun. exsicc. n. 291) ubi in Zygophylli albi et Limoniastri monopetali radicibus parasitica" (Cosson & Kralik 1857: 409, sub P. violacea); "Phelipaea violacea / bords du Chott Fejej / Mars 79 // Phelipaea violacea Desf. (Coss.)" (P 02970646; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Gabes in arenosis / 5 febr. 1886 / A. Letourneux" (P 02985970 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015 [only one specimen close to its label]); 1. "Plantes de Tunisie / 220 Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Gabès: in arenosis maritimes / III-1907.  C.J. Pitard". 2. "Herb. Musei Hist. Natur. Vindob. / Cistanche violacea (Desf.) G. Beck / 1966 rev. A. Gilli"  (E 00029738; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018); "Gabès. In arenosis maritimes, Pitard, III-1907 (MA 114698)" (Morales Abad & Fernández Casas 1994: 369, mapa 590); "Orobanchées / Phelippaea violacea Desf. / Gabès, sables maritimes -- 11 Avril 1909 / A. Letourneux [?] // Herbier G. Hibon" (P 02986944; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Gabes (Kralik, PI. Tunet. n. 291; Pitard, PI. Tunet. n. 220!" (Beck 1930: 30); "Orobanche cf. arenaria Borkh. / Tunis Gabès / Ved stranden / 12-13.3.1971 leg. Olav Gjærevoll". – 2. "Orobanche cf. arenaria Borkh. / Det. Arne Garthe 28.11.1993" (TRH:V:332832 - https://www.unimus.no/felles/bilder/web_hent_bilde.php?id=14162384&type=jpeg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/4435683370; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2024, sub C. violacea (Desf.) Hoffmanns. & Link); Gabès Governorate [Wilyat Qbis], pr. Zerkine [Wd az Zarkn], N 33º 44' 50''  E 10º 16' 52'', parasitic on Chenopodiaceae, C. Aedo & al. CA16302_2 (herb. MA [inflorescence, flowers]). 

Gafsa: "Tunisie. Un seul individu observé près du caravansérail de Bir Saad, dans un endroit où les deux espèces génératrices se trouvèrent en abondance." (Murbeck 1898: 30 et Beck 1930: 32, loc. class. of Phelypaea lutea × violacea, Cistanche hybrida Beck, C. tinctoria × violacea Beck); "Tunetia meridion.: S. Iter Algeriensi-Tunetanum, 1896. / Phelypaea lutea Def.× violacea Def. / Murb., Contrib. II (in Acta Soc. Phys. Lund. T. IX) / Entre El Hafay [Al Hufayy] et Bir Saad [Bou Saad Bordj / Burj Bu Sa`d]. / 17.4  leg. & det. S. Murbeck" (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p02970652 - P 02970652.jpg, holotype of Phelypaea lutea × violacea; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2015 (Moreno Moral & al. 2018 : 27)); "um Gafsa bei Leila (С.J. Pitard, Pl. de Tunisie, III. [1910], 724!" (Beck 1930: 30, sub C. violacea); "bei Bir Saad nächst Tunis (Murbeck)" (Beck 1930: 30, sub C. violacea); "Phelypaea violacea Desf. / Gafsa / 16-3-1950 / Legit  A. Labre" (P 04608138; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "... Cistanche violacea (D.) B. / ... / Steppe sableuse / Localité: Gafsa [?] Alt. c. 400 / Région: de Gafsa / 1-4-63 / 63T24 / ... M. Couteaux" (LUX 035929 - https://www.gbif.org/es/occurrence/2417936683; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2020).

Kebili / قبلي / Qibillī / Kébili: "Plantae tunetanae / Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Inter Biz Serira et Douz in arenis / 19 april 1887 / A. Letourneux // Mission scientifique de Tunisie / M. Letourneux, 1886-87" (P 02985968; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); idem (P 02985970 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015 [only one specimen close to its label]); Bir Bou-Nab / Trés abondant d'El-Oued au Chott el Djerid / avec le P. lutea. / M Sedillot  1887." (P 02985970 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015 [the left specimen on the sheet]); "très probab. le 13.03.1970 / Tunisie / Phelypaea / violacea / ... / El-Oued au Chott el Djerid / Douz" (P 04409249; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Oct 2016); photos in "Voyage botanique en Tunisie meridionale du 28 mars au 3 avril 2008» Dimanche 30 mars 2008: Tataouine - campement d'Aïn Sebat [near Ksar Ghilane / Qaşr Ghīlān]" (accessed Feb 2012); "Douz ["gateway to the Sahara"] - Tunisie le 04.03.2009" (photos by Jean-Marc Moingeon in Plantes parasites - Pharmanatur, accessed Aug 2012); "Stations 15 et 16 - Dunes à Ephedra elata, El Faouar à 7 et 4 km au sud de Douz ... Station 18 - Bord du chott El Djerid [Chott el Djerid], à 32 km de Douz" (Guittonneau & al. 2011: 329, 339 photos[!], 342).

Médenine: "17 février 2013 - Djerba - Tunisie" et "14 février 2016 - Djerba - Tunisie" (photos in Flore de Djerba - Flore de France (SFO - Section Nord), accessed Jun 2016).

Sfax: "Cistanche violacea (Desf.) Hoffmanns. & Link; Tunisie-Sfax; num.coll.: cc2404; photo: Chatelain" (photo 149355 in Apd; accessed Mar 2018).

Sousse: "Tunisia, okolí Souss [Sousse?], 22 February 2004" (photos id207590 by Jan Richtr det. Radim Paulič, sub C. violacea, in BioLib.cz; accessed Feb 2020).

Tataouine: "Dimanche 30 mars 2008: Tataouine - campement d'Aïn Sebat" (photo 1 et 2 by in Voyage botanique en Tunisie meridionale du 28 Mars au 3 Avril 2008, accessed Feb 2015).

Tozeur: "R.-L. Desfontaines / Herbier de Barbarie / Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Loc.: in arenis deserti prope Tozzer. / Desf. Fl. atl. II, p. 60, t. 145. / Série de 600 nos ... // Phelipaea violacea // Typus" (G 00014078, lectotype of P. violacea (Moreno Moral & al. 2018 : 27)); "Habitat in arenis deserti prope Tozzer [Tozeur / Tawzar / (توزر‎), 33° 55’ 12’’ N  8° 8’ 24’’ E, oasis aux portes du désert du Sahara]" (Desfontaines 1798: 61, loc. class. of P. violacea); "Habitat in areneis deserti Barbariae" (Willdenow 1800: 353, sub Orobanche Phelypaea); "Hab. in deserto prope Tozzer" (Persoon 1806: 181, sub P. violacea); "a sandy desert near Tozzer" (Don 1838: 633, sub P. violacea); "Crescit in deserto Barbariae" (Walpers 1842: 462, sub P. violacea); "In deserto Tunetano australiore, in arenosis prope Tozzer (Desf., loc. cit.)" (Cosson & Kralik 1857: 409, sub P. violacea); "bei Tozzer (Desfontaines)" (Beck 1930: 30, sub C. violacea); Tozeur (photo 111280652609280922906 by François Munoz in Picasa, accessed Apr 2009).

Sahara / al-Kubrā / The Great Desert: "Toute la région saharienne" (Pomel 1876: 107, sub P. violacea); "Sur le racines de Haloxylon tamariscifolium [Hammada articulata (Moq.) O. Bolòs & Vigo (Chenopodiaceae Vent.)] dans les steppes désertiques ... De l'Algérie à la Cyrénaïque [Cyrenaica, Libya]" (Jahandiez & Maire 1934: 693, sub C. violacea); "South of the country", Tunisia, 2007-02-25, photo 20616 by Georges Olioso (accessed Feb 2012).

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