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ISSN: 2386-9666 - Last Updated: 1 February 2020


Accepted Name:

Phelypaea coccinea (M. Bieb.) Poir. in Lamarck, Encycl. 5: 268 (1804 [9 Jan 1804])

Basionymum / Basionym:

Orobanche coccinea M. Bieb., Tabl. Prov. Casp.: 58 (1798) [O. coccinea M. Bieb., Fl. Taur. Cauc. 2: 84 (1808)] (Willdenow 1800: 354; Poiret 1804: 268; Bieberstein 1808: 84; Don 1838: 633). Ic.: Reichenbach, Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: t. 699 f. 937-938 (1829) (Reichenbach 1829: 49, "937. 938. e Caucaso ill. Ledebour."). Obs. "L'Orobanche écarlate; espčce qui au bout de sa tige porte une seule grande fleur du plus beau et du plus vif écarlate (Orobanche coccinea)" (Bieberstein 1798: 58); "Color sanguineus" (Reichenbach 1829: 49).

Synonyms:

Homotypic synonyms:

Orobanche coccinea Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 354 (1800) [nom. superfl.]. Ind. loc.: "Habitat in Siberia versus Mare Caspium" (Poiret 1804: 268; Persoon 1806: 181; Steudel 1841: 318; Ledebour 1849: 324). Herbarium Specimens: B -W 11607 -00 0; B -W 11607 -00 1; B -W 11607 -01 0; B -W 11607 -02 0; B -W 11607 -03 0; B -W11607 -04 0

Phelypaea coccinea (M. Bieb.) Poir. in Lamarck, Encycl. 5: 268 (1804 [9 Jan 1804]) ([Marschall von] Bieberstein 1808: 84). Ind. loc.: "Cette plante croît en Sibérie, sur les bords de la mer Caspienne". Obs. "feuilles alternes ... trois ou quatre ... calice est campanulé profondément, divise en cinq découpures lancéolées ... corolla est d'un rouge pourpre..." (Poiret 1804: 268; Walpers 1844: 481; Grossheim 1934: 8; Grossheim 1949: 352)

Phelypaea coccinea (M. Bieb.) Pers., Syn. Pl.: 181 (1806 [Nov 1806]), nom. superfl. Syn.:  Orobanche coccinea Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 354 (1800) (Persoon 1806: 181); Anoplanthus coccineus (M. Bieb.) Walp. (Walpers 1844: 481); = Anoplon biebersteinii C.A. Mey. (Don 1838: 633); = Phelypaea foliata Lamb. (Steudel 1841: 318); = Anoplanthus biebersteinii Reut. (Ledebour 1849: 324). Ind. loc.: "Habit. prope mare Caspium" (Persoon 1806: 181)

Orobanche coccinea M. Bieb., Fl. Taur. Cauc. 2: 84 (1808), nom. superfl. Ind. loc.: "Crecit in herbidis Caucasi, etiam rutheni [Ruthenia (S. European Russia) (Stearn 1992: 221)]". Obs. "Variat rarissime caule bifloro."

Aeginetia coccinea (M. Bieb.) Juss. ex Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 3: 481 (1844) ["Aeginetia coccinea Juss. mss."], pro syn. (Reichenbach 1829: 49; Steudel 1841: 318; Walpers 1844: 481)

Anoplanthus coccineus (M. Bieb.) Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 3: 481 (1844 [12-14 Sep 1844]) (Boissier 1879: 494; Stapf 1915: 288)

Anoplon coccineum (M. Bieb.) K. Koch in Linnaea 22: 670 (1849) ["29. A. coccineum (Phelipaea) Pers., syn. pl. II. p. 181. Lathraea Phelipaea L. cod. No. 4392"] (Koch 1849: 670)

Anoplon coccineum (M. Bieb.) Riedl & Schiman-Czeika in Rechinger, Fl. Iranica 5: 2 (1964), nom. superfl.

Diphelypaea coccinea (M. Bieb.) Nicolson in Taxon, 24(5-6): 654 (1975), nom. illeg.

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Heterotypic synonyms:

? = Anblatum orientale, flore purpurascente Tournef., Corollarium: 48 (1703) [pre-Linnaean name, not validly published]. Syn.: ? Lathraea anblatum L. (1753); ? = Phelypaea foliata Lamb. (1811) (Endlicher 1839: 727); ? = Lathraea squamaria L. (1753)

? = Lathraea anblatum L., Sp. Pl. 2: 606 (1753 [1 May 1753]). Syn.: ? Anblatum orientale, flore purpurascente Tournef., Corollarium: 48 (1703) (Linnaeus 1753: 606; Don 1838: 635; Walpers 1844: 481); ?  Anblatum tournefortii G. Don (Walpers 1844: 481); ? = Phelypaea foliata Lamb. (1811) (Walpers 1844: 481); ? = Lathraea squamaria L. (1753). Ind. loc.: "Habitat in Oriente" (Linnaeus 1753: 606); "H. Native of the Levant" (Don 1838: 635; Lathraea anblatum in the Linnaean Typification Project, accessed Mar 2012). Obs. According to Endlicher (1839: 727), Anblatum orientale, flore purpurascente Tournef., Corollarium: 48 (1703) is conspecific with Phelypaea foliata Lamb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 10: 260 t. 7 (1811). According to Reuter (1847: 43), Anblatum tournefortii G. Don [Gen. Hist. 4: 635 (1837-1838)] is conspecific with Phelypaea tournefortii Desf. in Ann. Mus. Par. 10: 298. t. 21 (1807). According to Index Synonymique de la Flore de France, Flora iberica and The Plant List, Anblatum tournefortii G. Don is conspecific with Lathraea squamaria L. (1753) [this synonym seems correct on the base of Don's description]

= Orobanche phelypaea M. Bieb., Beschreib. Land Casp.: 179[-180] (1800) [nom. illeg.], non Orobanche phelypaea Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 352 (1800) [nom. illeg.], nec Orobanche phelypaea Wallr., Orobanches Gen. Diask.: 70 (1825) [nom. illeg.]. Syn.: = Anoplon biebersteinii C.A. Mey. (1831); Phelypaea biebersteinii Fisch. ex Walp. (1844); Anoplanthus biebersteinii Reut. (1847) (Marschall von Bieberstein 1808: 84; Lambert 1811: 260; Steudel 1841: 318; Walpers 1844: 481; Stapf 1915: 292). Ind. loc.: "Primum lecta in collibus graminosis circa Fortalitium Alexandrinum [Gyumri / Alexandropol, Armenia] et Moscoviense in districtu Caucaso Circassiorum finitimo; postea hinc inde in umbrosis altioribus Dagestani et Schirvani [Shirvan, Azerbaijan] visa." (Bieberstein 1800: 180)

= Phelypaea foliata Lamb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 10: 260[-262], t. 7 (1811). Syn.:  Lathraea phelypaea Pall. ex Lamb. (1811), non Lathraea phelypaea L. (1753); = Orobanche coccinea M. Bieb. (Sprengel 1825: 818); = Anoplanthus biebersteinii Reut. in DC., Prodr. 11: 42 (1847) (Reuter 1847: 42; Boissier 1879: 494, sub Anoplanthus coccineus. Ind. loc.: "Habitat in monte Caucaso et Tauriâ [Caucasus Mountains et Crimea / Krym, Ukraine / Russia]. Pall. MSS. [Pallasina collection]" (Sprengel 1825: 818; Don 1838: 633; Steudel 1841: 318; Ledebour 1849: 324); "Discovered by Güldenstedt in Kachetia [Kakheti / Kaxeti, Caucasus Mountains, Georgia] (Stapf 1915: 294)

= Anoplon biebersteinii C.A. Mey., Verz. Pfl. Casp. Meer.: 104 (1831 [Nov-Dec 1831]) (Don 1837-1838: 633; Steudel 1841: 318; Walpers 1844: 481; Stapf 1915: 288). Syn.: = Orobanche phelypaea M. Bieb., Beschreib. Land Casp.: 179 (1800) [nom. illeg.], non Orobanche phelypaea Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 352 (1800) [nom. illeg.], nec Orobanche phelypaea Wallr., Orobanches Gen. Diask.: 70 (1825) [nom. illeg.] (Sprengel 1825: 818, sub P. foliata Lamb.); = Phelypaea foliata Lamb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 10: 260[-262], t. 7 (1811) (Sprengel 1825: 818, sub P. foliata Lamb.); = Phelypaea biebersteinii Fisch. ex Walp. (1844), pro syn. Ind. loc.: "Circa thermas constantinomontanas [Konstantinogorskaya, Pjatigorsk, Stavropol Krai, Russia] et in regione subalpina Caucasi occidentalis (alt. 800-1200 hexap.)". Herbarium Specimen: "Orobanche coccinea / in Tauria leg. & det. / Cl. Ledeb. / 22 // Herb. Al. de Bunge" (P 02970939 - E. Cosson, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011 [only one specimen, bad preserved])

? = Anblatum tournefortii G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 635 (1837-1838) ["A. Tournefórtii"]. Syn.: Lathraea anblatum L. (1753); Phelypaea tournefortii Desf. (1807) (Don 1837-1838: 633). Obs. According to Reuter (1847: 43), Anblatum tournefortii G. Don is conspecific with Phelypaea tournefortii Desf. in Ann. Mus. Par. 10: 298. t. 21 (1807). Ind. loc.: "Native of Armenia". According to Index Synonymique de la Flore de France, Flora iberica and The Plant List, Anblatum tournefortii G. Don is conspecific with Lathraea squamaria L. (1753)

= Phelypaea biebersteinii Fisch. ex Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 3: 481 (1844), pro syn. ["Phelipaea ... Biebersteinii Fisch. mss." (Reuter 1847: 42)]. Syn.: = Orobanche phelypaea M. Bieb., Beschreib. Land Casp.: 179 (1800) [nom. illeg.], non Orobanche phelypaea Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 352 (1800) [nom. illeg.], nec Orobanche phelypaea Wallr., Orobanches Gen. Diask.: 70 (1825) [nom. illeg.]; = Anoplon biebersteinii C.A. Mey. (1831). Herbarium Specimens: Types: Caucasus region, Russian Federation (Russia), L. Schweinitz, s.n. (PH 00029572; PH 00029571 in, accessed Jstor 2013); Phelypaea Biebersteinii / M. Caucasus / F.E.L. Fischer (PH 00042478 in Jstor, accessed Oct 2017); 1. "1. Phelypaea Biebersteinii mihi / Orobanche coccinea BB. excl. syn. / Tournef. / M. Caucasus [Caucasus Mountains] [leg. M. Steven, 1819]". 2. "1. Mt. Caucasus. D? Fischer. 1811. / 2. Caucasus Chev? de Steven 1819.". 3. "Phelypaea coccinea. / Sm. in Reess Cyclop. n. l." (LINN-HS 1088.1.1 - Herb. Smith, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Oct 2017 [the sheet contains four specimens, the numbers "1" collected by Fischer and the numbers "2" by Steven "a learned naturalist in the service of Russia" (Smith 1827); "frequent excursions to the Caucasian Mountains" (Hooker 1835)]); "Phelypaea Biebersteinii m. / Orobanche coccinea Willd. / excl. Synon. Tournef. / M. Caucase [Caucasus Mountains] / M. Steven" (P 02970931 [Herbier donné par M. Bonpland en 1833"], rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011 [three specimens, well preserved]); idem (P 02970925 - hb. Richaux, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011 [only one specimen, bad preserved, just a stem with leaves distributed along of this]); "Phelipaea foliata Lamb. / Phelipaea Biebersteinii / Orobanche coccinea W. / excl. syn. Tournef. / Caucasus / ... Fischer [?]" (L 2821541, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Oct 2017 [cf. LINN-HS 1088.1.1 - Herb. Smith]). Obs. "Iberia! [Caucasian Iberia / Iveria, Georgia] (Steven pl. exs.)" (Ledebour 1849: 325, sub Anoplanthus biebersteinii); "Tauria et Caucasus (M.B., Stev.)" (Boissier 1879: 494, sub Anoplanthus coccineus)

= Anoplanthus biebersteinii Reut. in DC., Prodr. 11: 42 (1847) (Boissier 1879: 494). Syn.: = Orobanche phelypaea M. Bieb., Beschreib. Land Casp.: 179[-180] (1800) [nom. illeg.], non Orobanche phelypaea Willd. (1800) [nom. illeg.], nec Orobanche phelypaea Wallr. (1825) [nom. illeg.]; = Anoplon biebersteinii C.A. Mey. (1831) (Reuter 1847: 42; Boissier 1879: 494, sub Anoplanthus coccineus); = Phelypaea biebersteinii Fisch. ex Walp. (1844) (Ledebour 1849: 324; Reuter 1847: 42); = Phelypaea foliata Lamb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 10: 260[-262], t. 7 (1811); Lathraea phelipaea sensu Gueldenst., Reisen 1: 422 (1787), non Lathraea phelypaea L. (1753). Ind. loc.: "In Tauriâ (Bieb.) [Tauria / Crimea, Ukraine / Russia], pratis montosis umbrosis Georgiae caucasicse (Hohenaker!), circa Thermas constantinomontanas [Konstantinogorskaya, Pjatigorsk, Stavropol Krai, Russia] et in regione subalpina Caucasi occidentalis (C.A. Mey.), in Sibiriâ versus mare Caspium (Walp.)." (Reuter 1847: 42). Herbarium Specimen: lectotype: "Tauria Steven [Christian von Steven] 1816 [m. Marschall von Bieberstein]” (LE s.n.! [the sheet contains two specimens, the specimen with flower is designated as the lectotype])" (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 15)

= Phelypaea helenae Popl., Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR.: 385 (1928) (Rix & Webb 1972: 294; Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 16). Syn.:  Anoplanthus helenae (Popl.) Stankov in Stankov & Taliev, Syst. Classif. Vasc. Pl. Eur. Russ.: 825 (1949); Diphelypaea helenae (Popl.) Tzvelev in Fedorov, Fl. Evropeĭskoĭ Chasti SSSR 5: 319 (1981); = Phelypaea coccinea f. aurantiaca Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 43 (1930) (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 29[27]). Ind. loc.: "Type: Described from the Crimean reserve [Crimean Natural Reserve, Crimea / Krym, Ukraine / Russia] (iso-LE); [type apparently lost]" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 28[29]); «Crimea [Krym, Ukraine] ("Alushta District, Crimean State Preserve, southern dry slope of hill") ... parasitizing Centaurea declinata Bieb.» (Tzvelev 1981[2001]: 319[438]); "Parasite on Psephellus declinatus (M. Bieb.) K. Koch [Centaurea declinata M. Bieb.] ... European part: Crimea. Endemic" (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 28[29]). Obs. Tzvelev in Fedorov, Flora of Russia... 5: 438 (1981 [2001]) ["Comb. nov."]; (IK) view IPNI entry. According to Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 29[28], P. helenae ("corolla orange-yellow") is a different species to P. coccinea ("corolla bright-red") ... "Parasite on Psephellus declinatus (M. Bieb.) K. Koch [Centaurea declinata M. Bieb.] ... European part: Crimea. Endemic ... Both yellow and red forms are encountered together on stony slopes of mountains of the Crimean reserve on the same host-plant". "Studies by T.G. Saturyan (1974, loc. cit.) seemingly confirm the independent status of this species. However, it is not ruled out that it is all but a "color" variant of the previous species" (Tzvelev (1981[2001]: 438)

= Anoplanthus helenae (Popl.) Stankov in Stankov & Taliev, Syst. Classif. Vasc. Pl. Eur. Russ.: 825 (1949) [Stankov in Stankov & Taliev, Opred. Vysš. Rast. Evr. Časti SSSR: 825 (1949)] (view IPNI entry). Syn.:  Diphelypaea helenae (Popl.) Tzvelev in Fedorov, Fl. Evropeĭskoĭ Chasti SSSR 5: 319 (1981)

= Phelypaea bayerni Novopokr. in Grossh., Opred. Rast. Kavk.: 730 (1949). Ind. loc.: "southern Transcaucasia" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 29[27]). Obs. "their origen as a result of hybridization of Ph. coccinea and Ph. Tournefortii is not ruled out" (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 29[27]). Herbarium Specimen: Lectotype: Caucasus: «1. "Anoplanthus biebersteinii Reut. ... Bayern: Hb. Caucasici". – 2. "Phelypaea Biebersteinii / Dr. G. de Beck". – 3. "I. Novopokrovskij. Notae criticae. Phelypaea bayerni Novopokr., 1948. 18-V" (LE s.n.!); isolectotypes: 1. "Bayern: Hb. Caucasici". – 2. "Phelypaea Biebersteinii / Dr. G. de Beck". – 3. "I. Novopokrovskij. Notae criticae. Phelypaea bayerni Novopokr., 1948. 18-V". – 4. "Phelypaea coccinea Poir ... 1954.XII.20 Tzvelev" (LE s.n.!), ibidem (LE s.n.!).» (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 15)

= Diphelypaea helenae (Popl.) Tzvelev in Fedorov, Fl. Evropeĭskoĭ Chasti SSSR 5: 319 (1981) (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 16). Syn.:  Phelypaea helenae Popl., Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR.: 385 (1928) (Tzvelev 1981[2001]: 319[438]); Anoplanthus helenae (Popl.) Stankov in Stankov & Taliev, Syst. Classif. Vasc. Pl. Eur. Russ.: 825 (1949); = Phelypaea coccinea f. aurantiaca Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 43 (1930); = Diphelypaea coccinea (M. Bieb.) Nicolson (1975) (Tzvelev 1981[2001]: 438, «a "color" variant"»; Rix & Webb 1972: 294)

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= Phelypaea coccinea f. aurantiaca Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 43 (1930). Ind. loc.: "[Georgia-Dagestan] ... f. Radde" ?]. Syn.: = Phelypaea helenae Popl., Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR.: 385 (1928); = Diphelypaea helenae (Popl.) Tzvelev in Fedorov, Fl. Evropeĭskoĭ Chasti SSSR 5: 319 (1981) (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 29[27])

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Misapplied names:

Lathraea phelipaea sensu Gueldenst., Reisen 1: 422 (1787) ["Itin. I"], non Lathraea phelypaea L., Sp. Pl.: 606 (1753). Syn.: = Anoplon biebersteinii C.A. Mey. (1831) (Don 1838: 633; Walpers 1844: 481); = Anoplanthus biebersteinii Reut. (Steudel 1841: 318; Reuter 1847: 42; Ledebour 1849: 324; Stapf 1915: 286; view IPNI entry). Ind. loc.: "Pflanzen im Caucasus [north of Tiflis (Tbilisi) in the Republic of Georgia" (Cullen 2010: 384)]"

Lathraea phelipaea sensu Georgi, Beschreib. Russ. Reiches 3(5): 1102 (1800), non Lathraea phelypaea L., Sp. Pl.: 606 (1753) (Stapf 1915: 286)

Orobanche purpurea sensu Böb. in Georgi, Beschreib. Russ. Reiches 3(5): 1178 (1800), non Orobanche purpurea Jacq., Enum. Stirp. Vindob.: 108[109], 252 (1762) (Ledebour 1849: 325)

Lathraea phelypaea sensu Pall. ex Lamb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 10: 260 (1811) ["Pall. MSS."], pro syn., non Lathraea phelypaea L., Sp. Pl.: 606 (1753) (Steudel 1841: 318)

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Ind. loc.: "Provinces situées sur la Côte Occidentale de la Mer Caspienne, entre les fleuves Terek [Terek Oblast / Терская область] et Kour [Kura / Кура, Baku Governorate / Бакинская губерния]" (Bieberstein 1798: I). "Crecit in herbidis Caucasi, etiam rutheni [Ruthenia (S. European Russia) (Stearn 1992: 221)]" (Bieberstein 1808: 84); "west coast of the Caspian Sea" [Caucasus] (Nicolson 1975: 654). "Phelypaea coccinea (Bieb.) Poiret (syn. Anoplanthus coccineus (Bieb.) Walp.; Diphelypaea coccinea (Bieb.) Nicolson,) was first described as Orobanche coccinea by von Bieberstein (1797, 1808) on the basis of specimens (currently in the Leningrad herbarium) collected by Güldenstedt north of Tiflis (Tbilisi) in the Republic of Georgia" (Cullen 2010: 384)

Lectotype: «Caucasus: 1. "Orobanche coccinea, / Phelypaea Tournerfof. / Ex Caucaso [m. Marschall von Bieberstein. Collected by Güldenstedt north of Tiflis (Tbilisi) in the Republic of Georgia]". – 2. "Orobanche coccinea M.B. / Typus! / XI.1968 Tzvelev 1968" (LE s.n.!) (Cullen 2010: 384)» (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 14, sub D. coccinea).

 "Type in Leningrad" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 29[27]); "Type: Described from Caucasus (LE)" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 29[27]); "Typus: In herbidis Caucasi, M. B. LE!" (Schiman-Czeika 1964: 2); "to typify Orobanche coccinea on Marschall von Bieberstein's Caucasian materials (Leningrad)" (Nicolson 1975: 654).

Designated by: Piwowarczyk & al. in Phytotaxa 386(1): 14 (2019).

Host: Parasitic mainly on species of the genus Psephellus Cass. [Centaurea sect. Psephellus (Cass.) DC. (1838)], more rarely on Centaurea s. str. and sometimes on Klasea coriacea (DC.) Holub (Compositae [Asteraceae]). "Ad radices Centaurearum (C. dealbata Willd. [Psephellus dealbatus (Willd.) K. Koch] et aliarum" (Beck 1930: 42); "Parasitica in Centaureis diversis" (Schiman-Czeika 1964: 2, A. coccineum s. l.); "Parasitic mainly on species of the genus Psephellus Cass. [Centaurea sect. Psephellus (Cass.) DC.] and also on Centaurea s. str. (Asteraceae) as C. pseudoscabiosa Boiss. & Buhse subsp. pseudoscabiosa, C. pseudoscabiosa subsp. glehnii (Trautv.) Wagenitz, and occasionally (in Jermuk) on Klasea coriacea (DC.) Holub [Serratula coriacea DC.; Centaurea strictissima Boiss. & Buhse] (Asteraceae)" (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 15, Armenia, sub D. coccinea). Annotated Checklist of Host Plants of Orobanchaceae, accessed Jan 2019).

Centaurea pseudoscabiosa subsp. glehnii (Trautv.) Wagenitz [C. glehnii Trautv.] (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 15, Armenia, sub D. coccinea).

Centaurea pseudoscabiosa Boiss. & Buhse subsp. pseudoscabiosa [C. scabiosa subsp. pseudoscabiosa (Boiss. & Buhse) Mikheev] (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 15, Armenia, sub D. coccinea).

Centaurea scabiosa L. [Krim?] (Stapf 1915: 294, sub Phelypaea foliata).

Klasea coriacea (DC.) Holub [Serratula coriacea DC.; Centaurea strictissima Boiss. & Buhse] (Asteraceae)" (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 15, Jermuk (Armenia), sub D. coccinea)

Psephellus dealbatus (Willd.) K. Koch [Centaurea dealbata Willd.] (Fischer 1852: 106, Stavropol Krai (Russia), sub Anoplanthus biebersteinii; Stapf 1915: 294, sub P. foliata; Beck 1930: 42, sub P. coccinea; Cullen 2010: 384, sub P. coccinea; MW 0723286 [Krasnodar Krai (Russia)]; Stavropol Krai (Russia) according to Александр Иванов [Alexander Ivanov], 2009 in Plantarium, accessed Oct 2017).

Psephellus declinatus (M. Bieb.) K. Koch [Centaurea declinata M. Bieb.] (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 29[28], Krim, sub P. helenae; Tzvelev 1981[2001]: 437, t. 41 f.1, 438, Krim, sub D. helenae; Krasnodar Krai (Russia) according to Татьяна Винокурова [Tatiana Vinokurova] et Анна Малыхина [Anna Malychina] in Plantarium, accessed Sep 2017 et Jan 2019).

Psephellus karduchorum (Boiss.) Wagenitz [Centaurea karduchorum Boiss.] [Georgia?] (G. Schneeweiß et al. 8196 in WU 27642, WU 27643) (Schneeweiss & al. 2004 sub D. coccinea).

Psephellus trinervius (Willd.) G. Wagenitz [Centaurea trinervia Willd.] (Krim according to Павел Евсеенков [Paul Evseenkov] and Валентина Фатерыга [Valentina Fateryga] in Plantarium, accessed Mar 2012 et Oct 2017).

Comments:

Taxonomic observations:

Phelypaea L., Op. Var.: 237 (1758) is the correct name for the genus, because the previous names were not validly published according to ICN (Turland & al. 2018).

Phelypaea Hill in Scott, Suppl. Chambers Cyclop. (1753) [not validly published] (Lonchamp in INRA-MNHN 1999; HUH id=16687, accessed Jan 2020; Turland & al. 2018: Art. 34, "suppressed work" (see App. I)). Type Name: Lathraea phelypaea L., Sp. Pl.: 606 (1753)

Phelypaea Hill in Owen, Dict. Arts Sci. 3: 2416 (1755 [1 Mar 1755]) [not validly published] ["Phelypaea, in botany, a genus of the didynamia-angiospermia..."] (Reveal 1991: 228, "The Hill genus name is now the oldest one available"; Turland 2018: Art. 34, "suppressed work" (see App. I)). NT [Neotype]: Lathraea phelypaea L., Sp. Pl.: 606 (1753) (Reveal 1991: 228) Cistanche phelypaea (L.) Cout. (1913)

Phelypaea P. Browne, Civ. Hist. Jamaica: 269 (1756 [Mar 1756]) [not validly published] (Shenzhen Code - Art. 38.6 Ex. 13, "In publishing "Phaelypea" without a generic description or diagnosis, Browne (Civ. Nat. Hist. Jamaica: 269. 1756) included and described a single species [Phelypaea erecta P. Browne], but he gave the species a phrase name (McNeill & Greuter 2016) not a validly published binomial. Art. 38.5 does not therefore apply and "Phaelypea" is not a validly published name.") (Turland & al. 2018: Art. 38.6 Ex. 13).

Phelypaea L., Op. Var.: 237 (1758), non Phelypaea Hill (1755) nec Phelypaea P. Browne (1756) ["Phaelypae"] (Reveal 1991: 228; Nicolson 1975: 653). Type Name: Phelypaea tournefortii Desf. (1807); Diphelypaea tournefortii (Desf.) Nicolson (1975). Obs. Carlón & al. in Documentos Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 3: 57, 58, 61 f. 4, 63 (2005); "vide Dandy, Ind. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 1753-74 (Regn. Veg. li.) 7 (1967)". Replaced synonym of: Diphelypaea Nicolson Taxon 24(5-6): 654. 1975 (view IPNI entry, accessed Feb 2008). "Dr R.K. Brummitt of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew tells me that he regards the name Phelypaea as the correct one for the genus." (Cullen 2010: 380).

Diphelypaea Nicolson in Taxon, 24(5-6): 654 (1975), nom. nov. [nom. illeg.]. Syn.:  Phelypaea L., Op. Var.: 237 (1758). Type Name: Diphelypaea tournefortii (Desf.) Nicolson (1975) [Phelypaea tournefortii Desf. (1807)]. IPNI: "without full basionym ref.". The reference to the place of publication of the basionym in "References"! (Nicolson 1975).

Phelypaea coccinea, P. boissieri and P. helenae seem to be very closely related to one another and the present treatment is provisional (P. helenae are included in P. coccinea) and P. boissieri is considered by us to be an independent species ["scapo crasso breviore ... squamis amplis ovato-cucullatis approximatis" (Reuter 1847: 42, sub Anoplanthus biebersteinii var. boissieri).

Morphological and taxonomic observations: according to (Stapf 1915: 290, sub P. boissieri and P. foliata; Rix & Webb 1972: 294, sub P. boissieri and P. coccinea and Cullen 2010, sub P. boissieri and P. coccinea), P. boissieri ("corolla-lobes orbicular, overlapping; anthers hairy") is a different species to P. coccinea ("corolla-lobes obovate-orbicular, not overlapping, anthers glabrous")]. Key to these species (Stapf 1915: 290; Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev (1958[2000]: 28[26]; Cullen 2010: 383-384).

Phylogenetic observations: Carlón & al. in Documentos Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 3: 57 [x = 19, sub Phelypaea (syn. Diphelypaea)], 61 f. 4 ["Phylogenetic relationships", sub Phelypaea], 63. 2005; "Recent molecular phylogenetic studies suggest two major lineages, informally called the Orobanche-group and the Phelipanche-group (Schneeweiss et al., 2004a). The first includes Orobanche sect. Orobanche and the small SW Asian genus Phelypaea (listed as Diphelypaea in Schneeweiss et al., 2004a), while the second includes the remaining sections of Orobanche (sects. Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, and Trionychon). The circumscription of these groups is well supported by the distribution of chromosome base numbers, these being x = 19 in the Orobanche-group and x = 12 in the Phelipanche-group (Schneeweiss et al., 2004b)" Weiss-Schneeweiss & al. 2006; Schneider 2016: f. 1.

Chromosomatic number: n = 19, 2n = 38 (Schneeweiss & al. 2004 f. 1f, g, sub Diphelypaea [D. coccinea]; Carlón & al. 2005: 57, sub Phelypaea [P. coccinea; Georgia, Garejis, between Lambalo and Udabno]).

Ic.: a, Reichenbach, Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: 49 "937. 938. e Caucaso ill. Ledebour.", t. 699 f. 937-938 (1829); b, Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 43 f. 9 (1930); c, Lambert in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 10: 260 t. 7 (1811); d, sub P. foliata (Stapf 1915: 292; Stapf 1915: t. 8615); e, Tzvelev in Flora of Russia... 5: 437, t. 41 f.1 (1981 [2001]); f, habit ["plant growing on Psephellus... southern Georgia... July 2002 by G. Schneeweiss"]; g, Georgia... G. Schneeweiss & al. 8196 (WU 27642, WU 27643); h, flower ["The Atsunta Pass near boundary between Tusheti and Khevsureti. High valleys in the central and eastern Caucasus, the Republic of Georgia, Michael J.B. Almond"]; i, photos in Plantarium.ru and photos in www.molbiol.ru (accessed Dec 2010); j, D. tournefortii vs. D. coccinea vs. D. boissieri (habits and calyces).

Distribution: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Greece [in error for P. boissieri], Russia, Turkey? [in error for P. tournefortii and P. boissieri], Ukraine [unconfirmed], Krim. "The species occurs in the Caucasus (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan), the Ukraine (Crimea) and possibly also in northern Iran [see P. boissieri]" (Cullen 2010: 384); Eurasian distribution (Domina & Raab-Straube 2010, sub P. coccinea, accessed Jul 2010); Eurasian distribution (Domina & Raab-Straube 2010, sub P. helenae, accessed Jul 2012).

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Specimens examined and literature records.

Armenia / Hayastan / Armenien / Arménie / Әрмәнстан / Армения ("Diphelypaea coccinea. In Tsaturyan T.G., Grigoryan S. B. (1987), Flora Armenii, t. 8 [tab. CLVI]" et "Diphelypaea coccinea (as Phelypaea coccinea). In Тахтаджян А.Л., Федоров Ан.А. (1972), Флора Еревана [tab. 76]" by Vahe Martirosyan in Flora of Armenia's Check List, accessed Jan 2015; Zaturjan & Grigorjan 1987: 367, "Tanacetum" sp. is the host-plant of D. tournefortii, the host-plants of D. coccinea are only Centaurea [Psephellus] species; Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 14-18, f. 8, sub D. coccinea)

Gegharkunik Province / Гехаркуникская область: "Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis (MW) / Hortus Botanicus Armeniae / Flora Sevanensis (Circ. iac. Gokca) / Phelypaea coccinea (MB.) Poir. / Anoplanthus coccineus Walp. / Rip. Günei, prope Sorja [Shoghakat / Shorzha / Nadezhdino]. Ada-Tapa [Adat'ap'a Lerr / Artanish Lerr / Gora Ada-Tapa, N 40°28′50″ E 45°18′40″] in fructicetis, 6500'-7500'. / in decliv. N-O. / Leg. A. Schelkovnikov et E. Kara-Murza / 25.VI.1928. teste E. Dastajnarea[?]" (MW 0723293; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2018); "Diphelypaea coccinea, Gegharquniq, 2011.06.23" (photo by Vahe Martirosyan in Flora of Armenia's Check List, accessed Jan 2015); "Цветущее растение. Армения, окр. дер. Гегаркуник [Armenia, env. der. Gegharkunik]. 23.06.2011." (photo 107496 by Ваэ Мартиросян [Vahe Martirosyan], 2011 in Plantarium, accessed Oct 2017); Artanish Peninsula [near Shorzha] (photos 19450145885, 18829480813, 18837544594 and 19450053275, sub D. tournefortii by Jorun Tharaldsen, Jun 2015, in www.flickr.com, accessed May 2018).

Tavush Province / Тавушская область: Idjevan [Ijevan / Istibulagh / Karavansara, Tavush] 30 May 2012 (photo [observations/89067] by Vahe Martirosyan in Flora of Armenia's Check List - iNaturalist.org, accessed Jan 2015); "Tavush Province, 12 Jun 2019" (observations/26868528 by Roger Frost, sub D. tournefortii, in iNaturalist; accessed Feb 2020).

Vayots Dzor Province / Вайоцдзорская область: "Armenia, prov. Vayots Dzor, pr. Ger-Ger [Herher], 39°47'09" N 45°32'15" E, Herrero, A. & al. 2811, 2005-06-24" ([ex herb. MA] W 2007-0011904, sub P. coccinea); "Vayots Dzor, Մ-2 [39°42'15.2"N 45°41'17.9"E et 39°42'14.4"N 45°41'20.4"E, near Saravan], 15 Jun 2016" (observations/7600773 et 15580643 by Andre Hospers, sub D. coccinea, in iNaturalist; accessed Feb 2020).

Yerevan / Erywan / Jerewan / Ереван: "Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis (MW) / Phelipaea foliata Lamb. / Anoplon Wallr. / Orobanche coccinea MB. / Armeni rossica / Herb. W. Besser" (MW 0723294; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2018); "Gouv. Eriwan [Erywan / Yerevan / Jerewan] «Armenia Rossica,» Szowitz in Herb. Besser at Kew. Ararat [Ağrı Dağı] and Alagos, 1300-1525 m, Wagner (acc. to Tchichatcheff)." (Stapf 1915: 294, sub Phelypaea foliata).

Unknown locations: "Armenia" (Walpers, 1844: 481, sub Anoplanthus coccineus); "Armenia" (Schiman-Czeika 1964: 2, sub Anoplon coccineum); "Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis (MW) / P. Smirnow. Pl. Armeniae ross. a. 1929. / Anoplanthus coccineus Walp. / ... / ... [Кавказ, Армения / Caucasus, Armenia] / ... / 22.VI.1929 / N.ş 843 ..." (MW 0723295; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2018); "Velmi výraznými prvky jsou zástupci zárazovitých (Orobanchaceae), např. nepřehlédnutelná rostlina s jediným červeným květem Phelypaea coccinea (obr. 10), která parazituje na chrpách (Centaurea)." (Ekrtová & Ekrt 2012: 70, 72, photo 10; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2015 [the photo seems to correspond to P. tournefortii]).

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Azerbaijan / Azərbaycan / Азәрбајҹан / Azerbaiyán / Aserbaidschan / Azerbaďdjan (Ledebour 1849: 325, sub Anoplanthus biebersteinii; Stapf 1915: 294, sub Phelypaea foliata; Beck 1930: 43, sub Phelypaea coccinea)

Elisabethpol Governorate / Elizavetpol Governorate / Елизаветпольская губерния: "territor. Elisabethpol ... (Hohenack.)" (Ledebour 1849: 325, sub Anoplanthus biebersteinii); "Jelisabetpol ..." (Beck 1930: 43, sub Phelypaea coccinea).

Goygol Rayon / Гёйгёльский район: "near Helenendorf [Goygol / Khanlar], Hohenacker! ..." (Stapf 1915: 294, sub Phelypaea foliata).

Ismailli Rayon / Исмаиллинский район: "... bei Chatoi am Aigun [Agan / Ahan / Akhan / Əhən, İsmayıllı?] bei 6000' (Bayern!)" (Beck 1930: 43, sub Phelypaea coccinea); "Азербайджан, Исмаиллинский р-н, окр. с. Ивановка. 20.04.2010" [İvanovka, İsmayıllı / Ismailli / Ismailly] (photos 72541, 72540 by Юрий Пирогов [Y. Pirogov] in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2010).

Khojavend Rayon / Xocavənd / Ходжавендский район: "Mount Sariah [Gora Ziyarat], Hohenacker ..." (Stapf 1915: 294, sub Phelypaea foliata); "... / Anoplanthus Biebersteinii Reut. / Transcaucasia Karabach australis. In decliv. / septentr. montis Ziarat. In saxosis ca 2200 mt. / 5.VII.1932 r. Leg. I. Karjagin et M. Mikulin / Det. I. Karjagin" (MW 0723301; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018).

Quba Rayon / Kuba / Къуба район / Губa район: "Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis / Herbarium Uhorti botanici Universitatis Mosquеnsis. / Anoplanthus coccineus Walp. / (Boiss. Fl. Or. p. / In silvis 1-2.V.1901 / Prov. Baku r. Kuba / Leg. L. Kreczetowicz" (MW 0723297; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); Azerbaijan [near Ərməki, Quba Rayon], 21 Jun 2017 (observations/7977693 by Cavid Qara, sub Diphelypaea coccinea, in iNaturalist; accessed Feb 2020).

Shirvan / Şirvan / Ширван: "Schirvani [Shirvan, Azerbaijan] visa." (Bieberstein 1800: 180, sub Orobanche phelypaea M. Bieb.); "Shirwan, without precise localities, between 1400 and 2100 m, Marschall" (Stapf 1915: 294, sub Phelypaea foliata).

Nagorno-Karabakh / Нагорный Карабах / Republic of Artsakh

"... provinc Karabagh [Nagorno-Karabakh] (Hohenack.)" (Ledebour 1849: 325, sub Anoplanthus biebersteinii); "Gouv. Karabagh [Nagorno-Karabakh], Lisogorsk, west of Schuscha; Thomin l.c. [in Acta Hort. Tifl.] iii. (1899) 65)" (Stapf 1915: 293, sub Anoplanthus coccineus var. nigrovittatus); "... Karabagh, without precise locality, Hohenacker." (Stapf 1915: 294, sub P. foliata); "... Karabagh [Nagorno-Karabakh]: ... Lysogorsk [Lisogorsk Sovxozu / Lysogorskiy, Şuşa / Shusha / Shushi] (A. Lomakin!), zwischen Daralogaz, Schuscha [Şuşa / Shusha / Shushi] (Bayern!) ..." (Beck 1930: 43, sub P. coccinea).

Unknown locations: Азербайджан (MW 0723299; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); Азербайджан (MW 0723300; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); Азербайджан (MW 0723303; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018).

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Caucasus / Cáucaso / Кавказ [Type Specimens: Mt. Caucasus [Caucasus Mountains], Anon. [Anonymous], s.n. (LINN-HS 1088-1-1; LINN-HS 1088-1-2 in Jstor 2013); Type Specimens: Caucasus region, Russian Federation (Russia), L. Schweinitz, s.n. (PH 00029572; PH 00029571 in Jstor 2013)]

Ciscaucasia / North Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia [North Caucasian Federal District]).

Transcaucasia / South Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia).

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Georgia / Sakartvelo / Georgien / Géorgie / Грузия (Lambert 1811: 260 t. 7, terra class. of Phelypaea foliata); Reuter 1847: 42, sub Anoplanthus biebersteinii; Ledebour 1849: 325, sub Anoplanthus biebersteinii; Piwowarczyk & al., 2019: 14, lectotype of Orobanche coccinea M. Bieb.)

 No precise location given: «Caucasus: 1. "Orobanche coccinea, / Phelypaea Tournerfof. / Ex Caucaso [m. Marschall von Bieberstein. Collected by Güldenstedt north of Tiflis (Tbilisi) in the Republic of Georgia]". – 2. "Orobanche coccinea M.B. / Typus! / XI.1968 Tzvelev 1968" (LE s.n.!) (Cullen 2010: 384)» (Piwowarczyk & al., 2019: 14, lectotype of Orobanche coccinea M. Bieb.); "Habitat in monte Caucaso [Caucasus] et Tauriâ [Crimea / Krym]. Pall. MSS." [Pallasina collection] (Lambert 1811: 260 t. 7, terra class. of Phelypaea foliata); 1. "1. Phelypaea Biebersteinii mihi / Orobanche coccinea BB. excl. syn. / Tournef. / M. Caucasus [Caucasus Mountains] [leg. M. Steven, 1819]". 2. "1. Mt. Caucasus. D? Fischer. 1811. / 2. Caucasus Chev? de Steven 1819.". 3. "Phelypaea coccinea. / Sm. in Reess Cyclop. n. l." (LINN-HS 1088.1.1 - Herb. Smith, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Oct 2017 [the sheet contains four specimens, the numbers "1" collected by Fischer and the numbers "2" by Steven "a learned naturalist in the service of Russia" (Smith, 1827); "frequent excursions to the Caucasian Mountains" (Hooker, 1835)]); "Phelypaea Biebersteinii m. / Orobanche coccinea Willd. / excl. Synon. Tournef. / M. Caucase [Caucasus Mountains] / M. Steven" (P 02970931 [Herbier donné par M. Bonpland en 1833"], rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011 [three specimens, well preserved]); idem (P 02970925 - hb. Richaux, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011 [only one specimen, bad preserved, just a stem with leaves distributed along of this]); "Anoplanthus Biebersteinii Reut. in Dec. XI. 42 / Phelypaea foliata. Lamb. / (Orobanche coccinea. Bbrst. [Bieberstein]) / In pratis montosis umbrosis Georgiae cauca- / sicae / Unio itiner. T. Fr. Hohenaker. Mai. 1831 / Herbarium Steudel" (P 02970928 - hb. E. Drake, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011 [twoo specimen well preserved]); "Phelypaea foliata. Lamb. / (Orobanche coccinea. Bbrst. [Bieberstein]) / In pratis montosis umbrosis Georgiae cauca- / sicae / Unio itiner. T. Fr. Hohenaker. Mai. 1831" (L 2817703, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Oct 2017); idem (L 2821540, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Oct 2017); idem (L 2821542, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Oct 2017); idem (P 02970935 - hb. M.J. Hennecart, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Oct 2017); "Phelypaea foliata Lamb. / Anoplanthus coccineus (Marschall) / in pratis montosis umbrosis / Unio itiner 1834 Georgiae caucasicae / May / T. Fr. Hohenaker." (P 02970926 - hb. E. Drake, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011 [only one specimen well preserved]); "Phelypaea foliata Lamb. / in pratis montosis umbrosis / Unio itiner 1834 Georgia caucasica / May / T. Fr. Hohenaker. / Anoplanthus biebersteinii Reut." (P 02970927 - hb. E. Drake, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011 [only one entire specimen, well preserved, and one flower]); "Orobanche coccinea / Cauc. [Caucasus] Wilhelms / comm. Prescott" (P 02970933 [Herbier donné par M. le Dr. Grenier, en 1875]; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011 [only one specimen well preserved]); 1. "Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis (MW) / Anoplanthus / Biebersteinii 6.V.71 Apn. Sohko [?, Кавказ, Грузия (Грузия)]". – 2. "Phelypaea coccinea (MB.) Poir." (MW 0723288; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); "pratis montosis umbrosis Georgiae [Georgia] caucasicae (Hohenaker!)" (Reuter 1847: 42, sub Anoplanthus biebersteinii); 1. "Orobanche coccinea / Iberia". 2. "Phelypaea / Biebersteinii / C." 3. "... Orobanche coccinea MB. / ... Caucas." (MW 0594765; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2019 [тип / type]); "Iberia! [Caucasian Iberia / Iveria] (Steven pl. exs.)" (Ledebour 1849: 325, sub Anoplanthus biebersteinii); "Tauria et Caucasus (M.B., Stev.)" (Boissier 1879: 494, sub Anoplanthus coccineus); "Phelypaea (Anoplanthus) foliata Lamb. / Caucasus In pratis montosin umbrosii / Georgiae / Mai 1908" (L 2821539, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Oct 2017); "Anoplanthus Biebersteinii Endl. / Gegen Sterilitat des Rindviehs / Caucasus [Georgiae Caucasicae]" (WAG 1141115; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2019); "Am Flusse Schuk in Abasechien (Kolenati n. 223!); in Somchetien (Kolenati n. 2308!, C.A. Meyer!); in Grusien [Gruzija / Georgia]!, Iberien [Caucasian Iberia / Iveria] (Steven nach Ledebour, Wilhelms!), Kachetien [Kakheti / Kaxeti] (Güldenstaedt) ... Georgien [Georgia]!: (Hohenacker 1831), um Borshom [Borzhomi / Borjomi, Samtskhe-Javakheti] (Radde!), bei Utsch tapaljar in 6500' Seehöhe, südlich von Gorktschai (Radde!), um Elisabethtal (Kolenati!) um Uzchet im Mai (Rodionow!)" (Beck 1930: 43, sub P. coccinea); "Georgien ... (Radde!)" (Beck 1930: 43, terra class. of P. coccinea f. aurantiaca?); "The Atsunta Pass near boundary between Tusheti and Khevsureti. High valleys in the central and eastern Caucasus, the Republic of Georgia, Michael J.B. Almond" [flower].

Guria Mkhare / Гурия: "AY209284: Georgia, Garejis, between Lambalo and Udabno [Chokhatauri], 800-900 m, on Centaurea sp. (Asteraceae), G. Schneeweiss (WU: S&T 7817)" (Schneeweiss & al., 2004 sub D. coccinea; Carlón & al. 2005: 63 sub P. coccinea).

Samtskhe–Javakheti Mkhare / Самцхе-Джавахети: "Borshom [Borzhomi / Borjomi, Samtskhe-Javakheti] (Radde!)" (Beck 1930: 43, sub P. coccinea); "Georgia, Minor Caucasus, surroundins of the village of Azavreti (Tetrobi), 2050-2170 m a.s.l. N 41° 36' 23'' E 43° 23' 12'' WU: S&T 8196 (15.VII.2002: G. Schneeweiss, AT, MS & PS)" (Schneeweiss & al. 2004 sub D. coccinea ["Photo of plant growing on Psephellus (= Centaurea) spp. (Asteraceae); southern Georgia; July 2002 . Photo July 2002 by Gerald Schneeweiss."] SIUC (Parasitic Plant Connection), accessed Feb 2006); "Samtskhe-Javakheti, western part of the moutain range of Trialeti: surroundings of the village Azavreti; 2170 m. 43°23'12'' E, 41°36'23'' N [on (?) Psephellus karduchorum (Boiss.) Wagenitz (Centaurea karduchorum Boiss.)], G. Schneeweiß et al. 8196, 2002-07-15" (WU 27642, WU 27643) (Schneeweiss & al. 2004 sub D. coccinea).

Kakheti Mkhare / Кахетия: "Kachetia [Kakheti / Kaxeti] (Güldenst.)" (Ledebour 1849: 325, sub Anoplanthus biebersteinii); "Kachetia" Güldenstedt; without precise locality, Steven! Wilhelms! Hohenacker!" (Stapf 1915: 294, sub P. foliata); "3. P. foliata. Discovered by Güldenstedt in Kachetia [Kakheti / Kaxeti, Caucasus Mountains]" (Stapf 1915: 294, terra class. of Phelypaea foliata); "Kachetien [Kakheti / Kaxeti] (Güldenstaedt)" (Beck 1930: 43, sub Phelypaea coccinea); "Цветки. Грузия Цителицкаройский р-н [Tsitelitskaroy district / Tsiteltskaro / Dedoplistsqaro], окр. Вашлованского заповедника [env. Vashlovani National Park]. 11.05.2014." (photo 241685 by Александр Иванов [Alexander Ivanov], 2014 in Plantarium, accessed May 2018).

Tbilisi / Tiflis / Тбилиси: "Anoplon Biebersteinii / In montibus Somchetiae [prope urbem Tiflis] / C.A. Meyer // Herb. Al. de Bunge" (P 02970937 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011 [four specimens, terra class. of D. coccinea]); 1. "Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis (MW) / Anoplanthus / Biebersteinii / Lathraea phelipaea Gueldenst. / ... / Tiflis / Provinciis caucasicis.". – 2. "Императорскаго Московскаго универenтета [Imperial Moscow University]. Тербаpiй А. П. Вiаля [A.P. Byala]. 1877. / Phelypaea coccinea (MB.) Poir." (MW 0723287; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); "Gouv. Tiflis: Mzchet, Thomin" (Stapf 1915: 294, sub P. foliata); "Tiflis, in 1911 ... the host-plant was Centaurea dealbata" (Stapf 1915: 295, sub P. foliata; Stapf 1915: t. 8615); "Phelypaea coccinea (Bieb.) Poiret (syn. Anoplanthus coccineus (Bieb.) Walp.; Diphelypaea coccinea (Bieb.) Nicolson,) was first described as Orobanche coccinea by von Bieberstein (1797, 1808) on the basis of specimens (currently in the Leningrad herbarium) collected by Güldenstedt north of Tiflis (Tbilisi) in the Republic of Georgia" (Cullen 2010: 384, terra class. of Phelypaea coccinea); "Растения окрестностей Сагурамского заповедника. Дорога Цхваричамиа - Тбилиси [Saguramskogo Reserve. Road Tshvarichamia - Tbilisi]" (krasn-cvetok.jpg by David Bokuchava [Давид Бокучава], accessed Dec 2010).

Abkhazia / Аҧсны Аҳәынҭқарра / Респу́блика Абха́зия / Abchasien / Abjasia

"Am Flusse Schuk in Abasechien (Kolenati n. 223!)" (Beck 1930: 43, sub Phelypaea coccinea).

South Ossetia / Tskhinvali Region / Южная Осетия

"Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis (MW) / Юго-Осетинский [South Ossetia] Горно-Луговой Стационар [Mountain-Lugovoi Station] / Академии наук СССР [Academy of Sciences of the USSR] / под руководством Е.А. Буш. [under the leadership of E.A. Bush.] /, Phelypaea coccinea Poir. ... 1950 m, 5.VII.1948 ... Кавказ, Южная Осетия [Caucasus, South Ossetia] " (MW 0723289; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); "Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis (MW) / Юго-Осетинский [South Ossetia] Горно-Луговой Стационар [Mountain-Lugovoi Station] / Академии наук СССР [Academy of Sciences of the USSR] / под руководством Е. А. Буш. [under the leadership of E.A. Bush.] /, Phelypaea coccinea Poir. ... 1800 m / 24.VI.1951 ..." (MW 0723290; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018 [anthers glabrous]); "Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis (MW) / Юго-Осетинский [South Ossetia] Горно-Луговой Стационар [Mountain-Lugovoi Station] / Академии наук СССР [Academy of Sciences of the USSR] / под руководством Е. А. Буш. [under the leadership of E.A. Bush.] /, Phelypaea coccinea Poir. ... 1800 m / 24.VI.1951 ..." (MW 0723291; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018 [anthers glabrous]); "Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis (MW) / Юго-Осетинский [South Ossetia] Горно-Луговой Стационар [Mountain-Lugovoi Station] / Академии наук СССР [Academy of Sciences of the USSR] / под руководством Е. А. Буш. [under the leadership of E.A. Bush.] /, Phelypaea coccinea Poir. ... 11950 m / 30.VI.1948 ..." (MW 0723292; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018).

inicio / top of page

Greece / Ελλάδα / Hellas / Grecia / Griechenland / Греция [in error for P. boissieri]

West Macedonia: "investigate the plant and insect mystery at a site on Mt. Dévas [N 40° 48′ E 21° 02′, near Psarádes]. After arriving at the site, it didn’t take us long to find the plant, Phelypaea (Diphelypaea) coccinea Poir., a parasitic member of the Orobanchaceae, distributed in SE-Europe, only living on Centaurea sp ... Flowers of Phelypaea coccinea with an as yet unidentified chafer beetle. Photo: Stephen Venn" (Venn & Kratochwil 2012: 22-23 [accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2015 (the photo seems to correspond to P. boissieri]).

inicio / top of page

Russia / Россия / Rusia / Russland / Russie

No precise location given: "Cette plante croît en Sibérie, sur les bords de la mer Caspienne [Caspian sea / Каспийское море]" (Poiret 1804: 268); "Habit. prope mare Caspium" (Persoon 1806: 181); "Crecit in herbidis Caucasi, etiam rutheni [Ruthenia (S. European Russia) (Stearn 1992: 221)]" (Marschall von Bieberstein, 1808: 84, sub O. coccinea); "937. 938. e Caucaso [Caucasus / Кавказ] ill. Ledebour." (Reichenbach 1829: 49, sub O. coccinea M. Bieb.); "Native of Tauria [Crimea / Krym / Крым] and Caucasus [Кавказ], in alpine regions, at the elevation of 800 to 1200 hexapods, also of Siberia, towards the Caspian sea" (Don 1838: 633, sub Anoplon biebersteinii); "Caucasia [Caucasus / Кавказ] et in Sibiria versus mare Caspicum [Caspian sea / Каспийское море]" (Walpers 1844: 481, sub Anoplanthus coccineus); "... et in regione subalpinâ Caucasi occidentalis (C.A. Meyer), in Siberiâ versus mare Caspium [Caspian sea / Каспийское море] (Walp.)" (Reuter 1847: 42, sub Anoplanthus biebersteinii); "Ciscaucasia [Ciscaucasus / Fore-Caucasus, North Caucasus / Северный Кавказ]" (Koch 1843: 290, sub Anoplon biebersteinii); "Rossia australi? (Böber, Georgi), Tauria [Crimea / Krym]! (Pall. in Willd. herb., M. a. Bieb.) et provincis caucasicis (M. a. Bieb.) [in regione ciscaucasica! (C. Koch), pr. Pätigorsk [Pyatigorsk / Пятигорск]! (Höfft pl. exs.), Karass! [Kars Oblast / Karsskaya Oblast / Карсская область, Transcaucasian governorate?] (Hohenack.) ... region subalpina Cauc. orient., alt. 800-1200 hexap. (C.A. Meyer)" (Ledebour 1849: 325, sub Anoplanthus biebersteinii); "Caucasus" (Schiman-Czeika 1964: 2, sub Anoplon coccineum); Кавказ (Россия) (MW 0723276 [Golbach]; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018).

North Caucasian Federal District / Се́веро-Кавка́зский федера́льный о́круг

Dagestan Republic / Респу́блика Дагеста́н (Koch 1849: 670, sub Anoplon coccineum; Stapf 1915: 294, sub Phelypaea foliata; Beck 1930: 43, sub P. coccinea)

"In südlichen Daghestan [Dagestan / Дагестан] von 30-1000' Höhe ..." (Koch 1849: 670, sub Anoplon coccineum); Daghestan [Dagestan] ..." (Stapf 1915: 294, sub Phelypaea foliata); "Dagestan!: bei Gussib [Gunzib / Darabale / Darbaly / Garbutli / Гунзиб, Bezhtinskiy Uchastok District] 4000-5000' im Juli (Th. Alexeenko!) und bei Derbent [Дербент, Derbentsky District / Дербентский район] bei 800' (Th. Alexeenko!), bei Pirkent [Tekipirkent, Dokuzparinsky District / Докузпаринский район] (Radde) ... auf Voralpen [Caucasus Mountains] im östlichen Kaukasus bei 800-1200' (C.A. Meyer) (Beck 1930: 43, sub P. coccinea); 16.7.87, на Centaurea / Дагестан [Dagestan] (MW 0723285; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); "Буйнакский р-н [Buynaksky District] 20 Jun 2008" (observations/20417512 by Ramazan A. Murtazaliev, sub D. coccinea, in iNaturalist; accessed Feb 2020); "Кизилюртовский р-н [Kizilyurtovsky District], 20 May 2015" (observations/26423500 by mallaliev, sub D. coccinea, in iNaturalist; accessed Feb 2020); "Цветущее растение. Дагестан, Ахтынский р-н [Akhtynsky District], окр. с. Ахты [Akhty]. 19.06.2016." (photo 457981 by Юсиф Саркаров [Yousif Sarkarov], 2016; растение определил(а) Леонид Непоменко in Plantarium, accessed Oct 2017); "Цветущее растение. Дагестан, г. о. Махачкала [Makhachkala], окр. с. Талги [Talgi], склон горы. 15.05.2018" (photo id/568916.html by Геннадий Окатов [Gennadiy Okatov] in Plantarium, accessed Jan 2019); "Цветущее растение. Дагестан, Докузпаринский р-н [Dokuzparinsky District], окр. с. Усухчай [Usuhchay], ок. 1400 м н.у.м., луг на склоне. 04.06.2019" (photos id/617933 et id/617934 by Геннадий Окатов [Gennadiy Okatov] in Plantarium, accessed Jan 2019); "Gunibskiy District [Гунибский район], 7 Jun 2019" (observations/35826775 by Nadezhda Liksakova, sub Diphelypaea coccinea, in iNaturalist; accessed Feb 2020).

Chechen Republic / Чече́нская Респу́блика

"2. Вединский р-н. с.с. Азизкенд х Дайнаг, левый берег р. Веди [Vedinsky district ss Azizkend x Dainag, the left bank of the Vedi River], можжевеловое редколесье 1200-2000 м н.р.м. 27 V 1960. В. Манакян [V. Manakyan], А. Бобров [A. Bobrov] (КW)." (Леонідович [Leonidovich] 2016: 106, sub Phelypaea coccinea).

Kabardino-Balkar Republic / Кабардино-Балкарская Республика / Kabardino-Balkaria / Кабардино-Балкария

 "Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis / Phelypaea coccinea (MB.) Poir. / 1926-27 Сев. Кавказ [Северо-Кавказский край / North Caucasus Krai], Кабарда [Kabardia] / Племхоз [Plemkhoz] / [leg.]. А. Шумкова [A. Shumkova] (MW 0723278 - MW 0723278.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); "Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis / Phelypaea coccinea (MB.) Poir. / 1926-27 Сев. Кавказ [Северо-Кавказский край / North Caucasus Krai], Кабарда [Kabardia] / Племхоз [Plemkhoz] / [leg.]. А. Шумкова [A. Shumkova] (MW 0723279 - MW 0723279.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); "Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis / Phelypaea coccinea (MB.) Poir. / 1926-27 Сев. Кавказ [Северо-Кавказский край / North Caucasus Krai], Кабарда [Kabardia] / Племхоз [Plemkhoz] / [leg.]. А. Шумкова [A. Shumkova]" (MW 0723280 - MW 0723280.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); "Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis (MW) / Phelypaea coccinea Poir. / Кабардино-Балкарская ACCP [Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic] долина р. Бaксан [Baksan Valley] ... Хжотеко, левый берег, известняки. 29.06.1976 29.06.1976 N.ş 95 7788 (MW0723284 - MW 0723284.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018).

Karachay-Cherkessia / Карачаево-Черкесия / Karachay-Cherkess Republic / Карачаево-Черкесская Республика

1. "Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis (MW) / Западный Кавказ [Western Caucasus], / Тебердинский заповедник [Teberda Nature Reserve (Teberdinsky)] / Собр. [Leg.] В.Н. Павлов [V.N. Pavlov]". 2. "110 Phelypaea coccinea Poir. / ... 1800 m / 2.VII.63 ..." (MW0723270 - MW 0723270.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); "Phelypaea coccinea Poir. / Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis (MW) ... Карачаево-Черкесская АО [Карачаево-Черкесская автономная область (КЧАО)] ... 12.07.84 Нелидова [Nelidova] ..." (MW0723273 - MW 0723273.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); Карачаево-Черкесская АО [Карачаево-Черкесская автономная область (КЧАО)] ... 1600 m ... 06.07.1990 / Г.Н. Курилин [G.N. Kurilin] ... (MW0723275 - MW 0723275.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); Карачаево-Черкесия ... N. 2294 22 июня 2003 г. / Leg. et det. А.С. Зернов [A.S. Zernov] (MW0723271 - MW 0723271.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); "Верхушка цветущего растения. Карачаево-Черкесия, Зеленчукский р-н [Zelenchuksky District], окр. станицы Исправная [Ispravnaya], луговой склон горы Больше, выс. 980 м н.у.м. 14.05.2016" (photo id/450349 by Николай Тихонов [Nikolai Tikhonov] 2016 in Plantarium, accessed Jan 2020).

Ust-Dzhegutinsky District / Усть-Джегутинский район: 1. "Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis (MW) / Усть-Джегутинск [Ust-Dzhegutinsky] / На опушке дубового леса / 1968-VI-24 / [Leg.] Г. Гроссет [G. Grosset].". 2. "Diphelypaea coccinea ... / 1983 V Determ. С.А. Баландин [S.A. Balandin]" (MW0723283 - MW 0723283.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); Карачаево-Черкесия, / Джегутинский р-н ... N. 5999 20 мая 2007 г. / Leg. et det. А.С. Зернов [A.S. Zernov] (MW0723272 - MW 0723272.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018).

Stavropol Krai / Ставропо́льский край (Reuter 1847: 42, sub Anoplanthus biebersteinii; Ledebour 1849: 325, sub Anoplanthus biebersteinii; Koch 1849: 670, sub Anoplon coccineum; Stapf 1915: 294, sub Phelypaea foliata; Леонідович [Leonidovich] 2016: 106, sub Phelypaea coccinea)

"circa Thermas constantino-montanas [Konstantinogorskaya (Pyatigorsk / Пятигорск)] ..." (Reuter 1847: 42, sub Anoplanthus biebersteinii); "Konstantinogorsk [Konstantinogorskaya (Pyatigorsk / Пятигорск)] (C.A. Meyer) ... in m. Beschtau! [Beshtau / Бештау, near Pyatigorsk / Пятигорск] (Höfft pl. exs.) ... " (Ledebour 1849: 325, sub Anoplanthus biebersteinii); "... aus Grusien von Wilhelms, aus der Umgegend der kaukasischen Bäder von Dr. Konradi erhalten [Mineralovodsky District / Минераловодский район, near Pyatigorsk / Пятигорск]" (Koch 1849: 670, sub Anoplon coccineum); 1. "Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis (MW) / Anoplon Biebersteinii Mey. / Karap [?]". 2. " ... Hohenacker (Гогенаккер), Пятигорск Растения [Pyatigorsk rasteniya/plant] (MW0723277 - MW 0723277.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); "Caucasus: Gouv. Stawropol [Stavropol Krai], between Moskowskoje and Alexandrowsk, Marschall; near Stawropol [Ставрополь], Akinfiew. Terek Territory [Terek / Терская область], near Pjätigorsk, Hofft; Constantinogorsk [Konstantinogorskaya, Pyatigorsk / Пятигорск], C.A. Meyer; "Caucasian baths [Mineralovodsky District / Минераловодский район, near Pyatigorsk / Пятигорск]," Conradi, (acc. to C. Koch); Beshtau Mountain [Beshtau / Бештау, near Pyatigorsk], Hofft; on Centaurea dealbata, Peroffsky ["collected by Count L. Peroffsky on Beshtau proved the perennial character of the plant" (F.E.L. Fischer. Notice sur les Anoplanthus de l'ancien monde. Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1852: 105-108)], Hohenacker [collected by Hohenacker (Гогенаккер) on Beshtau] (Stapf 1915: 294, sub P. foliata); "Caucasus: all regions" (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 29[27], sub P. coccinea); "southern Transcaucasia" (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 29[27], terra class. of Phelypaea bayerni Novopokr.); "Kuban [Кубань]-Gebiet [North Caucasus]. Ciscaucasien [Ciscaucasia, North Caucasus]! (C. Koch n. 2574, 5804! u. a.). — Terek-Gebiet! [Terek / Терская область, North Caucasus]: um Kislowodsk [Kislovodsk / Кисловодск] (Fedtschenko) ... im Distrikt Pjatigorsk [Пятигорск] (Höfft nach Ledebour), auf dem Joche Burgustau [Beshtau] bei 3500' (Th. Alexeenko), bei Marschueh bei 2410' im Juni (A. Lilius), bei Pjatigorsk (Sergatscheff!, F.N. [C.A.] Meyer im Mai!), um Karas (Hohenacker!), bei Konstantinogorsk [Konstantinogorskaya, Pjatigorsk] (C.A. Meyer), auf d. Beschtau-Gebirge [Beshtau] (Höfft nach Ledebour im Mai, Hohenacker!, Akimfiew!). ... auf Voralpen [Caucasus Mountains / Кавказские горы] im östlichen Kaukasus bei 800-1200' (C.A. Meyer) (Beck 1930: 43, sub P. coccinea); "347. Phelipaea coccinea Poir. / Phelipaea coccinea (M.B.) Poir. / Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis (MW) / Северо-Кавказский край / ... / 25.V.1937 / Leg.-Det. Т. Вернандер [T. Wernander]" (MW0723281 - MW 0723281.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); "347. Phelipaea coccinea Poir. / Phelipaea coccinea (M.B.) Poir. / Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis (MW) / Северо-Кавказский край / Железноводский район [Zheleznovodsk] / Бештаугорский лесопарк [Beshtaugorsky forest park], кв. 121. / Южный каменистый склон восточного отрога г. Бештау / 6.VI.1938 / Leg.-Det. Т. Вернандер [T. Wernander]" (MW0723282 - MW 0723282.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); "1. Терская обл. [Terek Oblast / Терская область], Пятигорск [Pyatigorsk]. 27 V 1891. В. Липский [V. Lipsky] (КW)" (Леонідович [Leonidovich] 2016: 106, sub P. coccinea); "Цветущие растения на травянистом склоне. Северный Кавказ [Северо-Кавказский край / North Caucasus Krai], Кавминводы, г. Бештау [Beshtau]. 10.07.2007." (photos id/24507, 24508, 24509 by Александр Иванов [Alexander Ivanov], 2009 in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2010; photos t212453 in www.molbiol.ru, accessed Dec 2010); "Северный Кавказ, Кавминводы [Caucasian Mineral Waters], г. Бештау [Beshtau]. 10.07.2007" (photos 13363 by M. Sokolova [Марина Соколова] in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2010); "Цветущее растение, паразитирующее на Psephellus dealbatus (соцветие и листья справа). Ставропольский край, Пятигорск, гора Машук [Mount Mashuk]. 22.04.2008." (photo id/123267 by Сергей Банкетов [Sergey Banquet], 2012 in Plantarium, accessed Oct 2017); "бештау, дифелипея красная, лето, пятигорск" [Beshtau] (photos id/160424, 160423 by Сергей, Альбом «Бештау», accessed Dec 2010); "Цветущие экземпляры и растение-хозяин - Psephellus dealbatus. Северный Кавказ, Ставрополь [Stavropol], Волчьи Ворота [Wolf's Gate (near Pyatigorsk)]. 06.06.2009." (photos id/19818, 19819 by Александр Иванов [Alexander Ivanov], 2009 in Plantarium, accessed Oct 2017); "Цветок. Ставропольский кр., рн. Кавказских Минеральных Вод [Mineralovodsky District / Минераловодский район, near Pyatigorsk / Пятигорск], предгорья у горы Бык. 16.05.2010" (photo id/176749 by Владимир Иноземцев [Vladimir Inozemtsew] in Plantarium, accessed Sep 2017); "Цветок. Окр. Кисловодска [Okr. Kislovodsk], луг по склону горы Большое Седло, около 1300 м н.у.м. 19 июня 2011 г." (photo id/118044 by Владимир Савельев [Vladimir Saveliev], 2012 (фото импортировано с molbiol.ru) in Plantarium, accessed Oct 2017); "Цветки. Ставропольский край, окр. г. Ставрополь [Stavropol], лесостепь. 25.05.2015." (photo id/489675 by Ирина Уханова [Irina Ukhanova]; растение определил(а) Владислав Григоренко 2017 in Plantarium, accessed Oct 2017).

Southern Federal District / Ю́жный федера́льный о́круг

Krasnodar Krai / Краснода́рский край

Краснода́рский край. / Кавказский гос. природный [Caucasus Nature Reserve]. / Вершина г. Сергеев Гай [Gora Sergeyev Gay] / 1.VII.1960. Зайцева [Zaitseva] (MW0723274 - MW 0723274.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); Гоreнaнеръ, Пятигорскiя растенiя [Gorenaner, Pyatigorskaya plant] (MW 0723277; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); "... хр. Маркотх [Markoth mountain] ... на Psephellus dealbatus / 2.06.2011 (MW0723286- MW 0723286.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); "Верхушка цветущего растения. Краснодарский край, м.о. г. Новороссийск [Novorossiysk], северные склоны горы Большой Маркотх [Markoth mountain], выс. 560 м н.у.м., луг. 30.05.2015" (photo id/455312 by Елена Алешичева [Elena Aleshicheva] 2016 in Plantarium, accessed Jan 2020); "Бутонизирующее растение, паразитирующее на Centaurea declinata. Краснодарский край, окр. г. Новороссийск [Novorossiysk], Маркотхский хр. [Markotkh Range], гора Большой Маркотх, каменистый восточный склон с преобладанием горно-степной растительности. 23.05.2009." (photos id/430825 by Анна Малыхина [Anna Malychina] in Plantarium, accessed Jan 2019); "Цветки. Краснодарский край, Новороссийск [Novorossiysk], хр. Маркотх [Markoth mountain], гора Квашин Бугор [Kvashnin hill], горная степь. 31.05.2009" (photos id/124876, 124877, 124878 by Антон Попович [Anton Popovich], 2012 in Plantarium, accessed Oct 2017); "Краснодарский край, Черноморское побережье, Геленджик [Gelendzhik], Маркотхский хребет [Markotkh Range], выс. 600 м н.у.м. 08.06.2009." (photos id/52867 and 52836 by Марина Соколова [M. Sokolova]; растение определил(а) Дмитрий Орешкин and Alexander Ivanov [Александр Иванов] in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2010); "Цветок. Краснодарский край, Новороссийск [Novorossiysk], окр. хут. Семигорский [env. Huth. Semigorsky], остепнённый склон. 23.05.2010" (photo id/122875 by Антон Попович [Anton Popovich], 2012 in Plantarium, accessed Oct 2017); "Цветущие растения. Черноморское побережье Кавказа, Новороссийский р-н [Novorossiysk], Маркотхский хребет [Markotkh Range], западный склон, г. Лысая-Новороссийская, горная степь. 21 мая 2014 г." (photos id/246933 et id/246934 by Михаил Лучкин [Michael Luchkin] 2014 in Plantarium, accessed Jan 2020); "Цветущие растения (на Centaurea declinata). Краснодарский край, Абинский р-н [Abinsky District], хр. Грузинка [Georgian ridge], гора Шизе [Shize mountain]. 10.05.2014 (photos 237002, 237001, 237000, 236999, 236998 and 236997 by Татьяна Винокурова [Tatiana Vinokurova] in Plantarium, accessed Sep 2017); "Цветущие растения на Psephellus declinatus. Краснодарский край, м/о г. Геленджик [Gelendzhik], хр. Маркотх [Markotkh Range], гора Мухины Поляны [Gora Mukhiny Polyany], выс. ≈ 630 м н.у.м., горный луг. 21.05.2015" (photos id/452605, 452603 and 452598 by Татьяна Винокурова [Tatiana Vinokurova] in Plantarium, accessed Sep 2017); "Верхушка цветущего растения. Краснодарский край, м.о. г. Новороссийск [Novorossiysk], северные склоны горы Большой Маркотх [mountain Large Markoth], выс. 560 м н.у.м., луг. 30.05.2015" (photo by Елена Алешичева [Elena Aleshicheva], 2016 in Plantarium, accessed Oct 2017); "Дифелипея красная (Diphelypaea coccinea) Кавказский заповедник [Caucasus Nature Reserve, Mostovsky District] (photos 434040, 434041 and 434042 by Перевозов Александрin [Alexander Perevozov] in Флора Кавказского заповедника, Россия [Flora of the Caucasian Reserve] - GeoPhoto / BioPhoto / Перевозов Александр, accessed Oct 2017); "Цветущие растения (паразитируют на Psephellus declinatus). "Краснодарский край, м/о г. Новороссийск [Novorossiysk], окр. пос. Верхнебаканский, гора Раевская [Gora Rayevskaya], горная степь. 18.05.2019" (photos id/613306 et id/613307 by Татьяна Винокурова [Tatiana Vinokurova] in Plantarium, accessed Jan 2019).

Krim / Crimea / Кры́мский полуо́стров / Кри́мський піво́стрів (see Ukraine / Russia)

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Turkey / Türkiye / Tuquía / Turkije / Турция (Distribution of The Taxon Over Turkey in Turkish Plants Data Service (TÜBİVES) Version 2.0 BETA; accessed Sep 2017) [unconfirmed, see P. tournefortii and P. boissieri]

"An" (Greuter & al. 1989: 265, sub Phelypaea coccinea); "Tu(A) Asiatic Turkey" (Domina, & Raab-Straube, 2010 sub Phelypaea coccinea); "N.E., Inner & S. Anatolia ... (Gilli 1971: 383; Gilli 1982: 2, sub Phelypaea coccinea [incl. P. boissieri]; Demirkuş [latest update: 21.07.2007], sub Phelypaea coccinea [accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2015 [corolla-lobes orbicular, overlapping]) the photos 1 [on Tanacetum sp.], 2 [on Tanacetum sp.], 3 seem to correspond to P. tournefortii and the 4 to P. boissieri]).

Note: "This continues the old confusions ... Beck-Managetta’s (1930) ... Gilli (1982), in his account for Davis’s Flora of Turkey, follows Beck and cites Boissier and Pinard specimens (see below) which he acknowledges are the ‘type of P. boissieri Stapf’ under P. coccinea. Most of the specimens he cites under coccinea are boissieri, though a few (which I have not seen) may be tournefortii. ... but most photos available there under the name P. coccinea are, in fact, P. tournefortii (especially those known to have been taken in Turkey, where P. coccinea does not occur)" (Cullen 2010: 383-384).

Aegean Region / Ege Bölgesi [see P. boissieri]

Afyonkarahisar Province: "B3 Afyon [Afyon / Afyonkarahisar Province]: 32 km S. of Sandikli, 1000 m, Sorger 62-26-1!" (Gilli 1982: 2, sub Phelypaea coccinea).

Denizli Province: "C2 Denizli [Denizli Province]: Cadmus (Baba Da.), Boiss. & Pinard (type of P. boissieri Stapf)" (Gilli 1982: 2, sub Phelypaea coccinea).

Black Sea Region / Karadeniz Bölgesi

Artvin Province: "A8 Çoruh [Artvin Province]: nr Melo above Artvin, 2000 m, Apold et al. 159!" (Gilli 1971: 383; Gilli 1982: 2, sub Phelypaea coccinea).

Gümüşhane Province: "A7 Gümüşane: Stavri, 2600 m, Balls 523!" (Gilli 1971: 383; Gilli 1982: 2, sub Phelypaea coccinea).

Eastern Anatolia Region / Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi

Erzurum Province: "B8 Erzurum [Erzurum Province]: Karaağil to Erzurum, Hamur-pet Da., Mitchell 2778(!)" (Gilli 1982: 2, sub Phelypaea coccinea).

Hakkâri Province: "C10 Hakkari [Hakkâri Province]: Yüksekova, 1950 m, 23 v 1966, Eiselt!" (Gilli 1982: 2, sub Phelypaea coccinea).

Kars Province / Kars ili [unconfirmed]: "Karass! [Kars Oblast / Karsskaya Oblast, Transcaucasian governorate?] (Hohenack.) ..." (Ledebour 1849: 325, sub Anoplanthus biebersteinii); "A9 Kars [Kars Province]: Kağizman, above Pazli, 1800 m, T. Baytop (ISTE 19972)!" (Gilli 1982: 2, sub Phelypaea coccinea).

Van Province / Van ili: "B9 Van [Van Province]: Darnis Aşağı, 2700 m, Frödin 1936: 184" (Gilli 1982: 2, sub Phelypaea coccinea); "Muradiye Waterfall, steppe, 1800 m, 19 v 1998, 2432. Hk. Ir.-Tur." (Ünal & Behçet 2007: 216, sub Phelypaea coccinea).

Mediterranean Region / Akdeniz Bölgesi [see P. boissieri]

Adana Province: "C5 Adana [Adana Province]: Hasanoğlu nr Gürümze [Gürümze, Cilicia now known as Çukurova], 1300 m, Kotschy 1859: 44! [see D. boissieri]" (Gilli 1982: 2, sub Phelypaea coccinea).

Isparta Province: "C3 Isparta [Isparta Province]: Çiçekdağ, 1500 m, Sorger 67-5-105!" (Gilli 1982: 2, sub Phelypaea coccinea).

Kahramanmaraş / Maraş Province: "C6 Maraş [Kahramanmaraş / Maraş Province]: Ahir Da., B. Post." (Gilli 1982: 2, sub Phelypaea coccinea).

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Ukraine / Україна / Ukrayina / Украи́на / Ukraina / Ucrania [unconfirmed] (D. coccinea map according to Вульф 1969; ЧКУ, 1996 in Nature.kr.ua, 2009-2012. Все права защищены; D. coccinea in Червона книга України [The Red book of Ukraine], accessed Dec 2016)

Odessa Oblast: "... Balka [Holodnaya Balka?, south-east of Ukraine] im Juni (Doppelmayr!)" (Beck 1930: 43, sub Phelypaea coccinea).

Unknown locations: "bei Kobardinskaja und Balka [Holodnaya Balka, south-east of Ukraine] im Juni (Doppelmayr!)" (Beck 1930: 43, sub Phelypaea coccinea).

Ukraine / Russia

Krim / Crimea / Кры́мский полуо́стров / Кри́мський піво́стрів ["Охраняют в Крымском и Ялтинском горно-лесном ПЗ. Источник [Protected in the Crimean and Yalta mountain-forest PZ.]: Вульф 1969; ККУ, 1996." (Diphelypaea coccinea in Красная книга Украины [The Red Book of Ukraine]; accessed Oct 2017)]

No precise location given: "Habitat in monte Caucaso [Caucasus] et Tauriâ [Crimea / Krym]. Pall. MSS." [Pallasina collection (Peter Simon Pallas)] (Lambert 1811: 260 t. 7, terra class. of Phelypaea foliata); "Orobanche / coccinea / Tauria / Steven [Christian von Steven] 1816." (LE!); "Native of Tauria [Tauriâ / Taurica / Chersonesus Taurica / Tauric Chersonese / Crimea / Krym]" (Don 1838: 633, sub Anoplon biebersteinii); "Tauria" (Walpers 1844: 481, sub Anoplanthus coccineus); "In Tauriâ (Bieb. [Friedrich August Marschall von Bieberstein])" (Reuter 1847: 42, terra class. of Orobanche phelypaea M. Bieb. [ Anoplanthus biebersteinii Reut.]); "Orobanche coccinea / in Tauria leg. & det. / Cl. Ledeb. / 22 // Herb. Al. de Bunge" (P 02970939 - E. Cosson, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011 [only one specimen, bad preserved]); "Tauria! (Pall. in Willd. herb., M. a. Bieb.) et provincis caucasicis (M. a. Bieb.)" (Ledebour 1849: 325, sub Anoplanthus biebersteinii); "Phelipaea foliata Lamb. ... / Phelipaea Biebersteinii Fisch. / Orobanche coccinea Biebers. / Willd. / Herbier A.N. Desvaux / Crescit in Tauria et Caucasia   4" (P 04392345 - A.N. Desvaux, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); "Tauria et Caucasus (M.B., Stev. [Christian von Steven])" (Boissier 1879: 494, sub Anoplanthus coccineus); "Rossia mer. (Tauria)" (Nyman 1854-1855: 134, sub Anoplanthus biebersteinii Reut.); 1. "Herbarium Universitatis Mosquеnsis / 1897. Крым [Crimea] / В.М. Арнольди [V.M. Arnoldi]". 2. "Phelypaea coccinea (M.B.) Poir. / 1992, I" (MW0626295 - MW 0626295.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); "without precise locality, Pallas, Arnoldi" (Stapf 1915: 294, sub Phelypaea foliata); "Halbinsel Krim!: an der Südküste (nach W. Arnoldi), zwischen Akmescht und Kurtz (Pallas!)" (Beck 1930: 43, sub Phelypaea coccinea); "Crimea" (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 29[27], sub P. coccinea); "Tauria" (Schiman-Czeika 1964: 2, sub Anoplon coccineum); "Цветущее растение. Крым [Crimea], горный луг, начало июня" (photo 4628 by Валентин Нужденко [Valentin Nuzhdenko], 2008, in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2010).

"New localities of the Diphelypaea coccinea (M. Bieb.) Nicolson, a species listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine, were found in the eastern part of the southern macroslope of the Crimean Mountains and in Kerch Peninsula ... Distribution of D. coccinea (M. Bieb.) Nicolson in the Crimea: 1* — slope to the valley of the Alma river in Crimean Reserve; 2* — Mt. Chernaya; 3* — near the Kosmodemyanovskyi Monastery; 4* — Inzher-Syrt Ridge; 5* — Nikitskaya Yaila Ridge; 6* — Shtangeevskaya path in front of Mt. Stavri-Kaya; 7* — Mt. Shan-Kaya, eastern spures of Demerdzhi-Yaila; 8 — Tatar-Khaburga Ridge near Koktebel'; 9 — Opuk Mt. ... D. coccinea (M. Bieb.) Nicolson on the maritime slopes of Mt. Opuk: a — the locality (a sandy spit of the Koyashskoje salt Lake on the background)" (Vasylenko, S.M. [Василенко, С.М.] 2009).

Alushta City Municipality / Алуштинский горсовет / Алуштинська міська рада: "Crimea. Endemic ... Type: Described from the Crimean reserve [Crimean Natural Reserve] (iso-LE); [type apparently lost]" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 28[29], terra class. of Phelypaea helenae Popl.); «Crimea [Krym] ("Alushta District [Алуштинська міська рада / Алуштинский горсовет], Crimean State Preserve, southern dry slope of hill") ... parasitizing Centaurea declinata Bieb.» (Tzvelev 1981[2001]: 319[438], terra class. of Phelypaea helenae Popl.).

Bilohirsk Raion / Белогорский район / Білогірський район: "sources of the Salgir River [Salhyr River, Chatyr-Dah / Çatır Dağ / Чатир-Даг / Чатыр-Даг (Crimean Mountains)], near Yenisala [Yeni-Sala / Eni-Sala / Krasnosyolovka / Красносёловка], on Centaurea Scabiosa, Steven" (Stapf 1915: 294, sub Phelypaea foliata).

Feodosia City Municipality / Феодосийский горсовет / Феодосійська міськрада: "8 — Tatar-Khaburga Ridge near Koktebel' (Vasylenko, S.M. [Василенко, С.М.], 2009); "Плодоносящие растения (на Centaurea trinervia [Psephellus trinervius (Willd.) Wagenitz]). ЮВ Крым [SW Crimea], окр. Коктебеля [env. Koktebel (Theodosia municipality)]. 10 июня 2011 г." (photo 112756 [of dry plants] by Павел Евсеенков [Paul Evseenkov] 2011 in Plantarium, accessed Mar 2012); "Цветущие растения, паразитирующие на Psephellus trinervius [Psephellus trinervius (Willd.) G. Wagenitz; Centaurea trinervia Willd.]. Крым, окр. Феодосии [env. Feodosia], Армутлукская долина [Armutlukskaya valley], луговая степь. 17 мая 2017 г." and "паразитирующее на Centaurea sp. Крым, окр. Феодосии, Армутлукская долина [Armutlukskaya valley], луговая степь. 17 мая 2017 г." (photos 525151, 525150, 525149, 525148 and 525144 by Валентина Фатерыга [Valentina Fateryga] 2017 in Plantarium, accessed Oct 2017).

Simferopol Raion / Симферопольский район / Сімферопольський район: "Orobanche coccinea / Sobla [Orta Sobla / Partizanskoye / Партизанское?, leg. Marschall von Bieberstein]" (LE!); "Crimea: in the subalpine region (Tchichatcheff [Pyotr Chikhachyov]) "Sobla [Orta Sobla / Partizanskoye / Партизанское?]" Estate, on the Alma River, Marschall" (Stapf 1915: 294, sub Phelypaea foliata).

Sudak City Municipality / Судакский горсовет / Судацька міськрада: "Встречается редко, на каменистых склонах мыса Толстый на Меганоме [It is rare, on stony slopes of Cape Tolstoy on Meganom], а также в среднем и верхнем поясе Горного Крыма [as well as in the middle and upper zone of the Mountainous Crimea]. Фелипея - охраняемое растение." (photo 0513 in felipeya-krasnaya - Растения и Цветы, accessed Oct 2017).

Yalta Municipality / Ялтинский городской совет / Ялтинська міська рада: "Крым. Никита [Nikita]. Подъем на Никитскую яйлу [Ascent to the Nikitskaya Yaila (Crimean Mountains)]. Полянка в сосновом лесу из крымской сосны. Высота 700 м. 16.V.1951. Собр. П. Смирнов [Coll. P. Smirnov]" (MW0626296 - MW 0626296.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); Крым. Госзаповедник. Крутой склон лишенный леса при спуске с Никитской яйлы в деревню Никиту. h - 1000 м [Crimea. State reserve. A steep slope devoid of forest when descending from the Nikitskaya Yaila (Crimean Mountains) in the village of Nikita. 1000 m] 7.VI.1952 г. Собр. И. Крылова , Дервиз Т. [Coll. I. Krylova, T. Derviz] (MW 0626297 - Gbif 1697745564; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); "5* — Nikitskaya Yaila Ridge (Crimean Mountains)" (Vasylenko, S.M. [Василенко, С.М.] 2009); Ай-Петри 04.06.2010" [Ai-Petri / Ай-Петрі, Crimean Mountains, Yalta municipality] (photos 212453 in www.molbiol.ru, accessed Dec 2010).

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Unknown localions: "Anoplon Tournefortii // in fallor inter plantas polantinas Boiss frherchla amifra[?]" // Herb. Al. de Bunge" (P 02970936 - E. Cosson, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011 [the two specimens on the lower right corner close to Bunge's label]); "Or. coccinea // Phelipaea Biebersteinii [Unknown or unspecified Asia] / Dr. G. Beck" (BW 11607010; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2015); "Or. coccinea / ["Unknown or unspecified Asia"] 229 W" (BW 11607020, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2015); "Or. coccinea / ["Unknown or unspecified Asia"] 230 W" (BW 11607030, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2015); "Or. coccinea / ["Unknown or unspecified Asia"] 231 W" (BW 11607040, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2015); "Phelypaea coccinea / Cazypamckuú xpedem [?] / 1923-V-3 / [leg.?] S Delaunay / [det.?] H. Ubereb" [?] (L 2821534, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Oct 2017); "Дифелипея киноварно-красная (Diphelypaea coccinea)." (photo 6_UIA_20150525 by Ирина Уханова in mycoweb.ru, accessed Oct 2017).

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References.

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