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ISSN: 2386-9666 - Last Updated: 19 April 2022


Accepted Name:

Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 4: 169 (1798 [24 May 1798]) (Willdenow 1800: 348; Wallroth 1822: 309)

Synonyms:

Homotypic synonyms:

Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica Beck, Biblioth. Bot. 19: 156 (1890) ["α. typica = Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm."], nom. inval. [not validly published] (Turland & al. 2018: Art. 24.3). Ic: Beck 1890: t.2 f. 42(1)

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Heterotypic synonyms:

= Orobanche major L., Sp. Pl.: 632 (1753), nom. rej. Syn.: = Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. (1798) (Turland & Rumsey in Taxon 46: 787-789. 1997; Brummitt in Taxon 49: 263. 2000). Ic: a, sub Orobanche major  [Linnean herbarium (S-LINN) (accessed Jan 2006)] [vide Orobanche elatior Sutton]; b, BM 000646202 et BM 000646203 The George Clifford Herbarium [The Natural History Museum (accessed Feb 2006)] [vide Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm.]. Obs. "ambiguous name" [nom. rej. prop. (Turland & Rumsey in Taxon 46: 787-789. 1997); nom. rej. (Brummitt in Taxon 49: 263. 2000, "This name has been used in several senses... Orobanche elatior Sutton ... Orobanche caryophyllacea ...")]; see Orobanche major in The Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project [The Natural History Museum (accessed Nov 2007)]; Orobanche major L., Sp. Pl.: 632 (1753), non L., Fl. Angl.: 19 (1754) [nom. rej. prop. (Tela Botanica, accessed Oct 2006)]

= Orobanche vulgaris Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 4: 621 (1798 [1 Nov 1798]) ["Orobanche vulgaris. (N.)"] (Lamarck & Candolle 1805: 489, sub O vulgaris Lam.; Wallroth 1822: 309; Reichenbach f. 1862: 97; Nyman 1881: 559; Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 91[86], sub O. vulgaris; Greuter & al. 1989: 258). Ind. loc.: "Cette plante vient par-tout en europe, dans les prés secs (V.v.)"; "Elle croît dans les prés secs et sablonneux, aux environs de Paris, etc." (Lamarck & Candolle 1805: 489, sub O vulgaris Lam.). Ic.: Reichenbach, Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: t. 675 f. 908 (1829). Herbarium Specimens: "Type:—France (lectotype designated here): Orobanche vulgaris, Dic. N.º 2 ... [environs de Paris] 1788 (P-00358186-hb. Lamarck!) (Lamarck & Candolle 1805: 489, sub O. vulgaris Lam.). The sheet contains two specimens, the lectotype is the specimen on the right-hand of the sheet, the other is an immature specimen and seems to correspond to the same gathering but its determination is not possible with certainty" (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 64, sub O. caryophyllacea)

= Orobanche sparsiflora Wallr., Sched. Crit. 1: 309 (1822) (Reichenbach f. 1862: 98, sub O. epithymum DC.). Syn.: Catodiacrum sparsiflorum (Wallr.) Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 370 (1867) [nom. illeg.]; Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica subf. sparsiflora (Wallr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 157 (1890) (Beck 1930: 232, "Subforma"). Ind. loc.: Germany, Hessen / Hesse: "In collibus et promontoriis graminosis sylvaticis inter Bottendorf [Burgwald, Waldeck-Frankenberg] et Schweinsroda. Jun."

= Orobanche incurva Benth., Cat. Pl. Pyrénées: 109 (1826). Syn.: Catodiacrum incurvum (Benth.) Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 370 (1867) [nom. illeg.]; = Orobanche galii-molluginis F.W. Schultz in Ann. Gew. Regensb. 5: 500 (1830) (Schultz 1830: 500); = Orobanche galii [Vaucher ex] Gren. (1853) (Dulac 1867: 370), nom. superfl. Ind. loc.: "A Mont-Louis, sur le Galium verum [Mont-Louis / Montlluís / el Vilar d'Ovansa, 42°30'33.1"N 2°07'14.9"E (Prades), Pyrénées-Orientales depart., France]". Obs. "Corollis tubulosis incurvis" (Bentham 1926: 109). According to Schultz (1830: 500-501, "incurva Benth.") and Dulac (1867: 370, "incurva Benth.") is conspecific with "17.  O. Galii Molluginis Tab. VII [Vaucher] ... 2. O. caryophyllacea Sm." and "O. Galii Vauch." respectively

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= Orobanche du Galium Mollugo Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 55, t. 7 (1827), nom. inv. Syn.:  Orobanche Galii-Molluginis [Vaucher ex] Duby, Bot. Gall.: 350 (1828), pro syn.; Orobanche galii-molluginis [Vaucher ex] F.W. Schultz in Ann. Gew. Regensb. 5: 500 (1830), pro syn.; Orobanche galii [Vaucher ex] Gren. in Gren. & Godr., Fl. France: 631 (1853), nom. superfl.; Orobanche galionepiphyta St.-Lag. in Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 131 (1880), nom. illeg.; = Orobanche incurva Benth. (1826) (Vaucher 1827: 55); = Orobanche galii Duby, Bot. Gall.: 349 (1828) (Reuter 1847: 21). Ind. loc.: Elle est commune dans le Canton de Genève, dans celui de Vaud et sans doute dans le reste de la Suisse [Switzerland]. Elle s'élève assez haut dans le Jura et dans les montagnes subalpines, comme par exemple, le Saxonnet, près de Cluse, d'où je l'ai reçue plus d'une fois. Je l'ai cueillie cette année (1826), en Savoie, en France, depuis Chambéry jusqu'à Vizille dans la Provence, et principalement sur la route de Nice à la Trébie. ... au Gallium erectum [Galium album Mill.], sur lequel elle m'a paru naître quelquefois dans le midi de la France ... Mai 1826, au jardin Botanique, sur une variété de Galium verum? ..." (Vaucher 1827: 55)

= Orobanche galii Duby, Bot. Gall.: 349 (1828). Syn.: = Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. (1798) (Reuter 1847: 20-21; Nyman 1854-1855: 130; Reichenbach f. 1862: 97; Nyman 1881: 559; Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 91[86], sub O. vulgaris); Orobanche du Galium Mollugo Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 55, t. 7 (1827), nom. inv.; = Orobanche Galii-Molluginis [Vaucher ex] Duby, Bot. Gall.: 350 (1828), pro syn. (Reichenbach 1832: 354, sub O. caryophyllacea Sm.). Ind. loc.: "in glareosis, Galio Mollugini, erecto etc. parasitica" [France] (Duby 1828: 350). Ic.: Reichenbach, Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: t. 661 f. 892 (1829) (Reuter 1847: 21). Obs. "892. legi in prato Florae Dresdensis, Galii Mollugini adhaerentem. Junio" [Dresden, Free State of Saxony, Germany] (Reichenbach 1829: 34); "O. Galii auf G. verum und G. Mollugo" (Schultz 1840: 127)

= Orobanche Galii-Molluginis [Vaucher ex] Duby, Bot. Gall.: 350 (1828), pro syn. Syn.:  Orobanche du Galium Mollugo Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 55, t. 7 (1827), nom. inv.;  Orobanche galii Duby, Bot. Gall.: 349 (1828); Orobanche galii-molluginis F.W. Schultz in Ann. Gew. Regensb. 5: 500 (1830)

= Orobanche strobiligena Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: 38 [t. 673 f. 905, t. 674 f. 906 f. 907] (1829) (Reuter 1847: 21; Nyman 1881: 559). Syn.:  Orobanche caryophyllacea var. strobiligena (Rchb.) Rchb. f. in Rchb. & Rchb. f., Iconogr. Fl. Germ. Helv. 20: 98 [162, t. 1783 (2b)] (1862); = Orobanche citrina A. Dietr., Fl. Boruss. 7: t. 441 [t. 441] (1839) (Reichenbach f. 1862: 98). Ind. loc.: "905. et ... 906. et var. ... 907. legi in prato sicco Fl. Dresd. inter leguminosas varias." [Dresden, Free State of Saxony, Germany]. Obs. "Crescit in pratis etc. in Galiorum radicibus. Aestate ineunte. in tota ditione. Etiam in Dalmatia ab ill nostro de Visiani indicatur." (Reichenbach f. 1862: 98 [162, t. 1783 (2b)]). Herbarium Specimens: 1. "Herbarium Dresdense [Dresden, Free State of Saxony, Germany] [Dresden, Free State of Saxony, Germany] / Orobanche strobiligena / Reichbach. ... / = O. caryophyllacea Smith / O. stigm citrin feav. [?] / v. d. Dohnaischen Schlage ... (Flor citrin)". – 2. "Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. / Jürgen Pusch 5.9.1989" (DR 014172 - https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=1258786; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022!, syntype?)

= Orobanche laxiflora Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: 39 [t. 675 f. 908] (1829) (Reuter 1847: 21; Nyman 1854-1855: 130; Nyman 1881: 559). Syn.: = Orobanche vulgaris Poir. (1798) (Reichenbach 1829: 39, "O. vulgaris Poir. in tab. nostra..."). Ind. loc.: "908 .. utranque Dresdae legi [Dresden, Free State of Saxony, Germany] ... 910. emarcida, Genevae [Geneva, Switzerland] lecta; cl. Radius". Herbarium Specimens: 1. "Herbarium Dresdense [Dresden, Free State of Saxony, Germany] / Orobanche laxiflora Rchb. / Fl. Dresd. — leg. autor, cl. L. Reichenbach / Ex herb. mus. nat. K.-M.-Stadt". – 2. "Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. / Jürgen Pusch 6.9.1989" (DR 014181 - https://dr.jacq.org/DR014181; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022!, syntype)

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= Orobanche bipontina F.W. Schultz in Flora 12: 464 (1829) (Schultz 1830: 500, 505 "1. O. bipontina Schultz (O. major Poll., vulgaris Koch et Ziz) ... O. caryophyllacea Sm. ... Reichb. l. c. [Fl. Germ. exsicc.] Nr. 60 ... auf Galium verum ..."; Reichenbach 1832: 354, sub O. caryophyllacea Sm.; Reuter 1847: 21; Reichenbach f. 1862: 97; Nyman 1881: 559, "exs. gall. germ. 496"). Syn.: = Orobanche vulgaris Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 4: 621 (1798 [1 Nov 1798]) (Schultz 1830: 505 "O. vulgaris ... Reichb. l. c. [Fl. Germ. exsicc.] Nr. 62"; Reichenbach f. 1862: 97). Ind. loc.: [Germany, Rhineland-Palatinate State / Rheinland-Pfalz]: "In den ersten Tagen des Juni besuchte ich den Wohnort der, in meinem „Beilrag zur Kenntnifs der deutschen Orobanchen" unter dem Namen Orohanche bipontina aufgefübrten Pflanze, und überzeugte mich durch das Ausgraben vieler Exemplare, dafs dieselbe auf der Wurzel von Galium verum schmarotze"

= Orobanche galii-molluginis F.W. Schultz in Ann. Gew. Regensb. 5: 500 (1830) ["O. Galii Molluginis Tab. VII. (O. papyracea DC. rubens W.? incurva Benth."], pro syn. (Schultz 1830: 500, 505). Syn.:  Orobanche du Galium Mollugo Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 55, t. 7 (1827), nom. inv. (Schultz 1830: 501); = Orobanche bipontina F.W. Schultz (1829) (Schultz 1830: 502, 505); = Orobanche vulgaris Poir. (1798) (Schultz 1830: 505)

= Orobanche papyracea DC. ex F.W. Schultz in Ann. Gew. Regensb. 5: 500 (1830), pro syn. (Reichenbach 1832: 354, sub O. caryophyllacea Sm.). Syn.: = Orobanche galii-molluginis F.W. Schultz in Ann. Gew. Regensb. 5: 500 (1830)

= Orobanche torquata Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 8: 12 f. 1128 (1831) (Reuter 1847: 21; Nyman 1881: 559). Ic.: Dietrich, Fl. Boruss. 7: t. 440

= Orobanche adenostemon (Rchb.) Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs.: 354 (1832). Ind. loc.: "In Gesellschaft der beiden vorigen fund [Wiesen, Mattersburg, Burgenland, Austrian] ich sie bei Dresden [Dresden, Free State of Saxony, Germany]. — Mitte Juni" (Reichenbach 1832: 354)

= Orobanche tubiflora A. Dietr., Fl. Boruss. 3: t. 147 [t. 147] (1835). Syn.:  Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. tubiflora ( A. Dietr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 158 (1890); Orobanche vulgaris subf. tubiflora ( A. Dietr.) Gilli in Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 106: 181 (1966). Ind. loc.: "Auf sonnigen Anhöhen in Sandboden bei Baumgartenbrück hinter Potsdam [Brandenburg, Germany] im Jahr 1834 auf einer Excursion die ich in Begleitung meines Freundes, des Herr Cabinels-Secretairs Sasse, eines eifrigen Botanikers, machte, entdeckt, wo sie zu mehreren zwisclien Büschen von Galium verum und Artemisia campestris vorkam, also wahrscheinlich auf einer von beiden stand, was ich leider nicht habe ausmitteln können. Blüht im Juli" (Dietrich 1835: t. 147)

= Orobanche krausei A. Dietr., Fl. Boruss. 7: t. 437 [t. 437] (1839) (Reuter 1847: 21; Nyman 1881: 559). Syn.: Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. krausei (A. Dietr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 159 (1890). Ind. loc.: "An trocknen begrasten Orten. Mutterpflanze unbekannt. Brandenburg [Germany]: am Chausseehause dicht vor dem Dorfe Berge hinter Nauen [Havelland], vom Herrn Geheimen Regierungsrath Krause entdeckt, dem zu Ehren ich sie benannt habe. Blüht im Juni und Juli" (Dietrich 1839: t. 437)

= Orobanche macrantha A. Dietr., Fl. Boruss. 7: t. 438 [t. 438] (1839) (Reuter 1847: 21; Nyman 1854-1855: 130). Syn.: Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. macrantha (A. Dietr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 156 (1890); = Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. var. multiflora Wallr., Orobanches Gen. Diask.: 38 (1825); = Orobanche laxiflora Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: 39 [t. 675 f. 908] (1829) (Beck 1890: 156); = Orobanche galii var. grandiflora Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: 35, t. 664 f. 895 (1829) (Beck 1890: 156). Ind. loc.: "An trocknen begrasten Orten. Mutterpflanze unbekannt. Brandenburg [Germany]: am Chausseehause dicht vor dem Dorfe Berge hinter Nauen [Havelland], vom Herrn Geheimen Regierungsrath Krause entdeckt. Blüht im Juni und Juli." (Dietrich 1839: 438)

= Orobanche gilva A. Dietr., Fl. Boruss. 7: t. 439 [t. 439] (1839) (Reuter 1847: 21; Nyman 1881: 559). Ind. loc.: "An trocknen, begrasten Orten. Mutterpflanze unbekannt. Brandenburg [Germany]: am Cbausseehause dicht vor dem Dorfe Berge hinter Nauen [Havelland]; vom Herrn Geheimen Regierungsrath Krause entdeckt. Blüht im Juni und Juli" (Dietrich 1839: 439)

= Orobanche citrina A. Dietr., Fl. Boruss. 7: t. 441 [t. 441] (1839) (Reuter 1847: 21; Nyman 1881: 559 "tota planta, incl. stigmate, lutea"). Syn.:  Orobanche caryophyllacea f. citrina (A. Dietr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 159 (1890). Ind. loc.: "An trocknen begrasten Orten. Mutterpflanze unbekannt. Brandenburg [Germany]: am Chausseehause dieht vor dem Dorfe Berge binter Nauen [Havelland]; vom Herrn Geheimen Regierungsrath Krause entdeckt. Blüht im Juni und Juli" (Dietrich 1839: 441)

= Orobanche ligustri Suard ex Godr., Fl. Lorraine 2: 178 (1843). Syn.:  Orobanche galii var. ligustri (Suard ex Godr.) Godr. in Gren. & Godr., Fl. Fr. 2 : 632 (1853); Orobanche caryophyllacea subsp. ligustri (Suard ex Godr.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 559 (1881 [Jul 1881]); Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. ligustri (Godr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 159 (1890). Ind. loc.: "sur les racibes du Ligustrum vilgare [?] [Lorraine, France]"

? = Orobanche quadrifida K. Koch in Linnaea 22: 665 (1849) (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 91[86], sub O. vulgaris; Catalogue of Life China, 2013 Annual Checklist; Tarkhnishvili & Chaladze 2013). Ind. loc.: Georgia: "Von K. Schmidt aus Grusien erhalten" (Koch 1849: 665). Obs.: "Blüthen und der Blüthenform steht diese Art der O. Hederae Dub. (O. barbata Rchb.) am Nächsten, und gehört mit die ser in die Nähe von O. caryophyllacea Sm." (Koch 1849: 665); "O. quadrifida C. Koch, described from Georgia, apparently, from specimens of O. vulgaris Poir. with the calyx segments connate in front" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 92[87], sub O. vulgaris)

= Orobanche erubescens Saut. in Flora 25: 577[-578] (1852). Syn.:  Orobanche epithymum subsp. erubescens (Saut.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 559 (1881). Ind. loc.: "In rad. Lychinidis diurnae [Silene dioica (L.) Clairv.; Lychnis diurna Sibth.] pr. Salisburg [Salzburg, Austria] leda 9. Jun. 1851" (Sauter 1852: 578; Müller 1859: 636 "Sauter in Regensb. FI. 1852 p. 578."; Reichenbach fil. 1862: 117-118, t. 217; Nyman 1881: 559, "O. caryophyllacea est teste Reutero (hb. Boiss.)"

= Orobanche galii [Vaucher ex] Gren. in Gren. & Godr., Fl. France: 631 (1853), nom. superfl. Syn.:  Orobanche du Galium Mollugo Vaucher, Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 55, t. 7 (1827), nom. inv. (Grenier 1853: 631); = Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. (1798) (Grenier 1853: 631); = Orobanche incurva Benth. (1826) (Dulac 1867: 370); = Orobanche bipontina F.W. Schultz (1829) (Grenier 1853: 631); = Orobanche vulgaris Poir. (1798) (Grenier 1853: 631)

? = Orobanche buhsei Reut. in Nouv. Mém. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 12: 169 (1860) ["Orobanche Buhsei Reut. n. sp."] (Boissier & Buhse 1860: 169; Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 91[86], sub O. vulgaris; Schiman-Czeika 1964: 16, sub O. vulgaris). Syn.:  Orobanche epithymum var. bushei (Reut.) Boiss., Fl. Orient. 4(2): 509 (1879); Orobanche caryophyllacea var. bushei (Reut.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 160 (1890) (Beck 1890: 160). Ind. loc.: "In Alindschathal und Dschagrithal bei Nachitschewan [Nakhchivan / Naxçıvan, Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Azerbaijan] auf Thymus Serpyllum. N.º 345" (Reuter in Boissier & Buhse 1860: 169). "Hab. in Armeniâ Rossicâ prope Nachitschewan Thymi serpylli [Thymus serpyllum L.?] parasitica (Buhse!)" (Boissier 1879: 509); "Vidi spec. orig. in herb. Petrop. collecta in Valle Alindscha et Dschagri pr. Nachitschewan" (Beck 1890: 160). Obs. "Stamina altius 4-5 mm supra basim inserta." (Beck 1890: 160); "Probably, they represent an independent physiological race" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 92[87], sub O. vulgaris). Herbarium Specimens: 1. "Herb. Buhse, Riga / Orob. Epithymum β bushei / Boiss., Fl. or. IV, 509 (1879) / Orobanche buhsei ... 169 / N.º 345 / In Alindschathal und Dschagrithal / bei Nachitschewan [Nakhchivan / Naxçıvan, Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Azerbaijan] auf Thymus / Serpyllum, mai 1847". – 2. "N.º 345 / Orob. Bushei Reut. n- sp.". – 3. "I. Novopokrovsky. Notae criticae / Orobanche Bushei Reuter / specimen anthenticum! (Syn. O. caryophyllacea Sm. var. Bushei / G. Beck) / 1949-X [m. Novopokrovsky]" (http://re.herbariumle.ru/01015398 - LE 01015398.jpg); 1. "435 = 345? / Orobanche buhsei Reut. ? = 345 / [leg.] Buhse / Dschagrithal". – 2. "O. caryophyllacea Sm. / var. O. Bushei / det. G. Beck [m. Beck]". – 3. "Isotypus". – 4. "Orobanche Buhsei Reut. / Isotypus! / (... Нахичеванская АССР!) / 1960.III.11 Teste: Н. Цвелёв [N. Tzvelev]". – 5. "Orobanche vulgaris Poir. / 1963 / det./rev. H. Schiman-Czeika" (http://re.herbariumle.ru/01015399 - LE 01015399.jpg)

= Catodiacrum sparsiflorum (Wallr.) Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 370 (1867) [nom. illeg.]. Syn.: Orobanche sparsiflora Wallr., Sched. Crit. 1: 309 (1822) (Reichenbach f. 1862: 98, sub O. epithymum DC.)

= Catodiacrum incurvum (Benth.) Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 370 (1867) [nom. illeg.]. Syn.: Orobanche incurva Benth., Cat. Pl. Pyrénées: 109 (1826); = Orobanche galii Duby, Bot. Gall.: 349 (1828) (Dulac 1867: 370)

= Orobanche galionepiphyta St.-Lag. in Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 131 (1880), nom. illeg. (Saint-Lager 1880: 131; 1883: 609). Syn.: Orobanche du Galium Mollugo Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 55, t. 7 (1827), nom. inv.;  Orobanche galii [Vaucher ex] Gren. in Gren. & Godr., Fl. France: 631 (1853), nom. superfl.; = Orobanche galii Duby (1828)

= Orobanche galiophysa St.-Lag. in St.-Lag. in Cariot, Etud. Fl. ed. 8(2): 648 (1889), nom. illeg. (Beck 1930: 227, sub O. caryophyllacea). Syn.: Orobanche du Galium Mollugo Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 55, t. 7 (1827), nom. inv.

? = Orobanche sideritidis Huter, Porta & Rigo in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 57: 354 (1907). Syn.:  Orobanche sideritidis Porta in Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital. 6: 268 (1879) ["Orobanche Sideritidis nobis, parasit ad radices Sideritis brutiae, nondum descripta"], nom. nud. (see Orobanche teucrii). Ind. loc.: "O. Teucrii Holandre. Wird von Beck, Monogr. der Gattung Orohanche, pag. 157, zu O. caryophyllacea Sm. f. vulgaris gezogen. Wächst auf den Wurzeln der Sideritis brutia, manche Stöcke derselben verwüstend, in Calabrien: Dirupata di Morano [Morano Calabro, Parco nazionale del Pollino, Cosenza, Calabria, Italy], 1100-1300 m s. m."

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= Orobanche epithymum subsp. erubescens (Saut.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 559 (1881 [Jul 1881]). Syn.:  Orobanche erubescens Saut. in Flora 25: 577[- 578] (1852)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea subsp. ligustri (Suard ex Godr.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 559 (1881 [Jul 1881]). Syn.:  Orobanche ligustri Suard ex Godr., Fl. Lorraine 2: 178 (1843); Orobanche caryophyllacea var. ligustri (Suard ex Godr.) Gren. in Gren. & Godr., Fl. Fr. 2 : 632 (1853)

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= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. multiflora Wallr., Orobanches Gen. Diask.: 38 (1825) ["Wallroth, Orob. gen. ΔΙΑΣΚΕΥΗ p. 38 (1825), sec. spec. orig. in herb. Willd. sed ex parte, quia planta orig. herb. Petropolitani O. albam Steph. apparet."] (Beck 1890: 156). Syn.: = Orobanche macrantha A. Dietr., Fl. Boruss. 7: t. 438 [t. 438] (1839). Obs. "O. speciosa DC. O. caryopllacea! Braune" (Wallroth 1825: 38)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. pauciflora Wallr., Orobanches Gen. Diask.: 38 (1825). Syn.:  Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica subf. pauciflora (Wallr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 157 (1890) (Beck 1930: 232, "Subforma"); = Orobanche major Poll. var. pauciflora Noulet, Fl. Bass. Sous-Pyr.: 483 (1837). Obs. "O. sparsiflora β pauciflora Schd. crit. O. Epithymum et O. minor auct. quord. in herb. Tuo" (Wallroth 1825: 38)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. sparsiflora Wallr., Orobanches Gen. Diask.: 38 (1825). Syn.:  Orobanche sparsiflora Wallr., Sched. Crit. 1: 309 (1822); Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica subf. sparsiflora (Wallr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 157 (1890) (Beck 1930: 232, "Subforma"). Obs. "O. sparsiflora Schd. crit. O. vulgaris! Koch" (Wallroth 1825: 38)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. thyrsiflora Wallr., Orobanches Gen. Diask.: 38 (1825). Syn.:  Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica subf. thyrsiflora (Wallr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 157 (1890) (Beck 1930: 232, "Subforma"); – Orobanche major Pollich, Hist. Pl. Palat. 2: 200 (1777) (Wallroth 1825: 38)

= Orobanche elatior var. multiflora Wallr., Orobanches Gen. Diask.: 51 (1825). Syn.:  Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. macroglossa (Wallr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 156 (1890); = Orobanche erubescens Saut. in Flora 25: 577[-578] (1852)

= Orobanche galii var. adenostemon Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: 34, t. 663 f. 894 (1829) ["pro varietatibus ... DCLXIII. 894"] (Reuter 1847: 21; Reichenbach f. 1862: 97; Nyman 1881: 559). Syn.:  Orobanche adenostemon (Rchb.) Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs.: 354 (1832);  Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica subf. adenostemon (Rchb.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 158 (1890) (Beck 1930: 232, "Subforma")

= Orobanche galii var. eriostemon Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: 34, t. 662 f. 893 (1829) ["pro varietatibus ... DCLXII. 893"] (Reichenbach f. 1862: 97). Syn.:  Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica subf. eriostemon (Rchb.) Biblioth. Bot. 19: 158 (1890) (Beck 1930: 232, "Subforma")

= Orobanche galii var. grandiflora Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: 35, t. 664 f. 895 (1829) (Reichenbach f. 1862: 98). Syn.: = Orobanche macrantha A. Dietr., Fl. Boruss. 7: t. 438 [t. 438] (1839)

= Orobanche laxiflora var. albida Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: 39 [t. 676 f. 909] (1829). Ind. loc.: "utranque Dresdae legi [Dresden, Free State of Saxony, Germany]" (Reichenbach f. 1862: 98)

= Orobanche major Poll. var. flava Noulet, Fl. Bass. Sous-Pyr.: 483 (1837) ["δ Jaune. Flava Nob. / Toute la plante d'un jaune pâle, uniforme"] (Noulet 1837: 482, sub O. major Poll.). Syn.: = Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. strobiligena (Rchb.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 159 (1890) (Beck 1930: 233)

= Orobanche major Poll. var. monosepala Noulet, Fl. Bass. Sous-Pyr.: 483 (1837) ["ε Monosépale. Monosepala Nob. / Calice 1-sépale, entièrement fendu à sa partie antérieure"] (Noulet 1837: 482, sub O. major Poll.)

= Orobanche major Poll. var. pauciflora Noulet, Fl. Bass. Sous-Pyr.: 483 (1837) ["γ Pauciflore. Pauciflora Nob. / Fleurs d'1 à 6"] (Noulet 1837: 482, sub O. major Poll.)

= Orobanche galii var. ligustri (Suard ex Godr.) Godr. in Gren. & Godr., Fl. Fr. 2 : 632 (1853). Syn.:  Orobanche ligustri Suard ex Godr., Fl. Lorraine 2: 178 (1843)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. strobiligena (Rchb.) Rchb. f. in Rchb. & Rchb. f., Iconogr. Fl. Germ. Helv. 20: 98 [162, t. 1783 (2b)] (1862). Syn.:  Orobanche strobiligena Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: 38 [t. 673 f. 905, t. 674 f. 906 f. 907] (1829)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. sulphurea Čelak., Prodr. Fl. Böhm. 2: 341 (1871). Syn.: = Orobanche strobiligena Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: 38 [t. 673 f. 905, t. 674 f. 906 f. 907] (1829) (Beck 1930: 233); = Orobanche caryophyllacea var. strobiligena (Rchb.) Rchb. f. in Rchb. & Rchb. f., Iconogr. Fl. Germ. Helv. 20: 98 [162, t. 1783 (2b)] (1862); = Orobanche citrina A. Dietr., Fl. Boruss. 7: t. 441 [ t. 441] (1839); = Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. citrina (A. Dietr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 159 (1890)

? = Orobanche epithymum var. bushei (Reut.) Boiss., Fl. Orient. 4(2): 509 (1879 [Apr-May 1879]) ["β ? Buhsei"]. Syn.:  Orobanche buhsei Reut. in Nouv. Mém. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 12: 169 (1860) (Schiman-Czeika 1964: 16, sub O. vulgaris); Orobanche caryophyllacea var. bushei (Reut.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 160 (1890) (Beck 1930: 234)

? = Orobanche caryophyllacea var. bushei (Reut.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 160 (1890). Syn.:  Orobanche buhsei Reut. in Nouv. Mém. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 12: 169 (1860) (Beck 1930: 234)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. gymnantha Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 159 (1890). Ind. loc.: "Germania [Germany]: prope Hanau [Main-Kinzig-Kreis, Hesse] subdefloratam leg. Mertin. Vidi in herb. d. A. Braun Berolin" (Beck 1890: 159)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. incurvata Beck in Magyar Bot. Lap.: 156 (1926) ["var. β incurvata"]. Syn.:  Orobanche vulgaris var. incurvata (Beck) Gilli in Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 106: 180 (1966). Obs. "II. Linea dorsalis plus minus curvata, in labio supero acrius incurva" (Beck 1930: 230-233)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. macrolepis T. Georgiev [T. Georgiadis] in God. Sof. Univ. Agron.-Les. Fak. 5(1): 45 (1937) [Год. Соф. Унив. Агрон. Фак. (1937) 15(1): 45 (1937)]. Herbarium Specimens: "Status: lectotype / Labelling: Orobanche caryophyllaceae var. macrolepis T.Georg.; Loc. Lyulinski livedi [Lyulin meadows, Bulgaria], VI, 1924; Leg. Стоянов и Стефанов [M. Stoyanoff & B. Stefanoff] Collection: Agricultural University of Plovdiv — Herbarium (SOA) [No.: 10434]" (https://www.nmnhs.com/images/e-natura/photos-types/1200/soa/SOA_10434.jpg - https://www.nmnhs.com/images/e-natura/photos-types/1200/soa/SOA_10434_0133.jpg - https://www.nmnhs.com/e-natura/types-bulgaria/type_id_en-SOAXXXXX0121.html ["Lectotypus: O. caryophyllaceae var. macrolepis T. Georgiev. Люлински ливади [Lyulin meadows (Lyulin Mountain / Люлин планинаn, Pernik Province / Област Перник, Bulgaria)], VI, 1924 (leg. Стоянов & Стефанов) SOA 10434 (Делипавлов1995) (!) / Прицветници значително по-дълги от цветовете. Венче жълто. / Разпространение: Софийски р-н [Sofia district], Знеполски р-н [Znepol district], Родопи [Rodopi] (з), от 800 докъм 1050 m" (Stoyanov 2020: 87, sub O. caryophyllacea)])

= Orobanche vulgaris var. incurvata (Beck) Gilli in Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 106: 180 (1966). Syn.:  Orobanche caryophyllacea var. incurvata Beck in Magyar Bot. Lap.: 156 (1926)

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= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. besseri Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 158 (1890). Ind. loc.: Russia, Krasnodar Krai, Temryuksky District: "Circa Nicolajef ad Ostia Hypanis [Kuban river] Rossiae leg. Besser, herb. Petrop.!"

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. citrina (A. Dietr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 159 (1890) (Beck 1930: 233). Syn.:  Orobanche citrina A. Dietr., Fl. Boruss. 7: t. 441 [t. 441] (1839)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. curva Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 159 (1890). Syn.: = Orobanche alba sensu Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: 40 t. 680 f. 913 (1829) (Beck 1890: 159)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. gilva (A. Dietr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 159 (1890). Syn.:  Orobanche gilva A. Dietr., Fl. Boruss. 7: t. 439 [t. 439] (1839)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. krausei (A. Dietr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 159 (1890) (Beck 1930: 233). Syn.: Orobanche krausei A. Dietr., Fl. Boruss. 7: t. 437 [t. 437] (1839)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. ligustri (Suard ex Godr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 159 (1890) (Beck 1930: 233). Syn.:  Orobanche ligustri Suard ex Godr., Fl. Lorraine 2: 178 (1843)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. macrantha (A. Dietr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 156 (1890). Syn.:  Orobanche macrantha A. Dietr., Fl. Boruss. 7: t. 438 [t. 438] (1839)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. macroglossa (Wallr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 156 (1890). Syn.:  Orobanche elatior var. multiflora Wallr., Orobanches Gen. Diask.: 51 (1825); = Orobanche erubescens Saut. in Flora 25: 577[-578] (1852)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. megalepis Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 158 (1890)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. orphina Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 157 (1890) (Beck 1930: 233)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. strobiligena (Rchb.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 159 (1890) (Beck 1930: 233). Syn.: Orobanche strobiligena Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: 38 [t. 673 f. 905, t. 674 f. 906 f. 907] (1829); = Orobanche major Poll. var. flava Noulet, Fl. Bass. Sous-Pyr.: 483 (1837)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. subgilva Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 159 (1890)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. torquata (Rchb.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 158 (1890). Syn.: Orobanche torquata Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 8: 12 f. 1128 (1831)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. tubiflora (A. Dietr.) Biblioth. Bot. 19: 158 (1890). Syn.: Orobanche tubiflora A. Dietr., Fl. Boruss. 3: t. 147 [t. 147] (1835)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. vulgaris (Poir.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 157 (1890). Syn.: Orobanche vulgaris Poir. in Lam., Encycl. 4: 621 (1798 [1 Nov 1798])

= Orobanche caryophyllacea f. albiflora (Baguet) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 233 (1930) ["Forma 10. albiflora Baguet in Bull. soc. bot. Belg. XXXI. (1891) 185 pro var., fide Wildem, et Durand, Prodr. fl. Belg. III. (1899) 629. — Corolla tota alba"]. Ind. loc.: "Belgien [Belgium], in den Dünen bei Lisseweghe [Bruges]" (Beck 1930: 233)

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= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica subf. adenostemon (Rchb.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 158 (1890). Syn.:  Orobanche adenostemon (Rchb.) Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs.: 354 (1832); Orobanche galii var. adenostemon Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: 34, t. 663 f. 894 (1829) (Beck 1930: 232, "Subforma")

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica subf. brevispicata Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 157 (1890) (Beck 1930: 232, "Subforma")

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica subf. dasythrix Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 157 (1890) (Beck 1930: 232, "Subforma")

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica subf. eriostemon (Rchb.) Biblioth. Bot. 19: 158 (1890). Syn.:  Orobanche galii var. eriostemon Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: 34, t. 662 f. 893 (1829)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica subf. fallax Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 158 (1890). Ind. loc.: Czech Republic, South Moravian Region: "Burgholz [Purkrábka] prope Znaim [Znojmo] Moraviae (leg. Oborny) !"

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica subf. infundibuliformis Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 158 (1890) (Beck 1930: 232, "Subforma")

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica subf. microtera Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 158 (1890) (Beck 1930: 232, "Subforma")

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica subf. pauciflora (Wallr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 157 (1890). Syn.:  Orobanche caryophyllacea var. pauciflora Wallr., Orobanches Gen. Diask.: 38 (1825)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica subf. sparsiflora (Wallr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 157 (1890). Syn.: Orobanche sparsiflora Wallr., Sched. Crit. 1: 309 (1822); Orobanche caryophyllacea var. sparsiflora Wallr., Orobanches Gen. Diask.: 38 (1825)

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica subf. thyrsiflora (Wallr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 157 (1890) ["(Orobanche) thyrsiflora Wallroth"] (Beck 1930: 232, "Subforma"). Syn.: Orobanche caryophyllacea var. thyrsiflora Wallr., Orobanches Gen. Diask.: 38 (1825); = Orobanche major Pollich, Hist, plani Palat. II, p. 200 (1827) (Beck 1890: 157); ? = Orobanche Sideritidis Huter, Porta, Riga, Exs. itin. italic. Ill, nr. 357 (1877) et in Caruel, Nuovo giorn. bot. (1879) p. 268, sine descr., vidi spec. orig. (Beck 1890: 157); = Orobanche laxiflora Dietrich, Plora Boi'uss. t. 253 (Beck 1890: 157). Obs. "Spica cylindracea, densiflora" (Beck 1890: 157)

= Orobanche vulgaris subf. tubiflora (A. Dietr.) Gilli in Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 106: 181 (1966). Syn.: Orobanche tubiflora A. Dietr., Fl. Boruss. 3: t. 147 [t. 147] (1835)

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Misapplied names:

Orobanche major Pollich, Hist. Pl. Palat. 2: 200 (1777) et auct. pl., non Orobanche major L., Sp. Pl.: 632 (1753), nom. rej. [= Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. (1798)] (Wallroth 1825: 38; Reichenbach 1832: 354, sub O. galii; Reuter 1847: 21; Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii; Meyer 1849: 404, sub O. major; Beck 1890: 157)

Orobanche epithymum sensu Benth., Cat. Pl. Pyrénées: 109 (1826) [p.p. min. ("sur ... Rubiacées")], non Orobanche epithymum DC. in Lam. & DC., Fl. Franç. ed. 3, 3: 490 (1805)

Orobanche alba sensu Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: 40 t. 680 f. 913, t. 681 f. 914 f. 915 (1829) ["Orobanche alba M. B. var.*"], non Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 350 (1800) (Reichenbach f. 1862: 98). Ind. loc.: "913. ... in Thuringia [Free State of Thuringia] lectam misit cl. Wallroth. ... 914.915. in vinearum versuris ad Hoflössnitz Fl. Dresd. leg. rev. Niedner [Dresden, Free State of Saxony, Germany]"

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Ind. loc.: "Gathered in shrubby hills near Valcimara [Valcimarra, Caldarola, Macerata Province, Le Marche Region, Italy / Italia], at the foot of the Apennines [Appennino umbro-marchigiano, Appennini / Apennine Mountains], in April 1787. Tour on the Continent, vol. ii. 308. Linnaeus received the same from Siberia." (Smith 1798: 169).

Lectotypus / Lectotype: herb. Smith 1087.23 (LINN).

Designated by: M.J.Y. Foley in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 58: 230 (2001).

Host: Parasitic exclusively on Rubiaceae species [mainly on Galium sp., e.g., Galium verum L., G. mollugo L. (Schultz 1840: 127; Reuter 1847: 21; Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 92[87], sub O. vulgaris; Rumsey & Jury 1991: 266, sub O. caryophyllacea; Zázvorka 2000: 502) and Rubia peregrina L.] (Annotated Checklist of Host Plants of Orobanchaceae, accessed Apr 2010). The Rubiaceae are also host-plants of O. clausonis Pomel that was incluided by Beck (1890; 1930) and other botanists in O. caryophyllacea, this can be a source of confusions.

"Parasiticam observavi ad radices plantarum sequentium: Galium corrudaefolium Vill. [G. lucidum subsp. corrudifolium (Vill.) Bonnier], G. lucidum All., G. mollugo L., G. purpureum L. [Asperula purpurea (L.) Ehrend.], G. silvaticum L., G. verum L., Asperula galioides M. Bieb., Sherardia arvensis L. Indicatur in secutis: Galium aparine L., G. boreale L. (s. Caflisch), G. erectum Huds. [G. erectum Huds. (1762) non (1778) = G. album Mill.] (s. Martin)" (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 227, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Asperula galioides M. Bieb. [ Galium galioides (M. Bieb.) Soó] (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 227, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Asperula purpurea (L.) Ehrend. [ Galium purpureum L.]. Greece (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 227, sub O. caryophyllacea; Strid & Tan 1991: 274, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Galium album Mill. [= Galium erectum Huds. (1762) non (1778)]. Bulgaria (SOM 15856 (Stoyanov 2020: 87, sub O. caryophyllacea)); France (Vaucher 1827: 55, sub O. du Galium Mollugo; Grenier 1853: 632, sub O. galii [Vaucher ex] Gren.; Cosson & Germain 1861: 380, sub O. Galii; Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea, s. Martin; Beck 1930: 227, sub O. caryophyllacea; MPU 507077).

Galium aparine L. France (Cosson & Germain 1861: 380, sub O. Galii; Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 227, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Galium boreale L. Germany (Sendtner 1854: 836, sec. Caflisch, sub O. Galii; Beck 1890: 160, "s. Caflisch", sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 227, "f. Caflisch", sub O. caryophyllacea).

Galium glaucum L. [ Asperula glauca (L.) Besser]. Czech Republic (Beck 1930: 227, "f. Missbach", sub O. caryophyllacea; Pusch 2009: 65, sub O. caryophyllacea); France (Noulet 1837: 483, sub O. major Poll.).

Galium intermedium Schult. [= Galium schultesii Vest]. Carpathian Mountains (Beck 1930: 227, "(f. Sagorski, Fl. carp. II. [1891] 424)", sub O. caryophyllacea).

Galium lucidum All. (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 227, sub O. caryophyllacea); Italy (Domina & Colombo 2005: 100, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Galium lucidum subsp. corrudifolium (Vill.) Bonnier [Galium corrudaefolium Vill.] (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 227, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Galium lucidum subsp. fruticescens (Cav.) O. Bolòs & Vigo [ Galium fruticescens Cav.]. Spain (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 12141).

Galium mollugo L. [= Galium molle Gilib.]. England (Rumsey & Jury 1991: 266, sub O. caryophyllacea; https://www.brc.ac.uk/plantatlas/plant/orobanche-caryophyllacea); France (Vaucher 1827: 55, sub O. du Galium Mollugo; Duby 1828: 350, sub O. Galii; Schultz 1830: 505; Noulet 1837: 483, sub O. major Poll.; Cosson & Germain 1861: 380, sub O. Galii; Beck 1930: 227, "G. molle Gilib. (f. A. Lendner in Bull. herb. Boissier 2. ser. II. [1902] 652)", sub O. caryophyllacea; PE 01463727); Germany (Sendtner 1854: 836, sub O. Galii); Romania (Wierzbicki 1845: 324, sub O. alba Rchb.; Wierzbicki 1845: 324, sub O. pallidiflora W. et Gr.).

Galium odoratum Scop. (Pusch 2009: 65, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Galium pumilum Murray [= Galium silvestre Pollich]. France (Cosson & Germain 1861: 380, sub O. Galii).

Galium silvaticum L. (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 227, sub O. caryophyllacea; Pusch 2009: 65, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Galium verum L. Armenia (MW 0723433); Bulgaria ((KS) SOA 56351 (Stoyanov 2020: 87, sub O. caryophyllacea)); England (Rumsey & Jury 1991: 266, sub O. caryophyllacea; https://www.brc.ac.uk/plantatlas/plant/orobanche-caryophyllacea); France (Schultz 1830: 505, O. bipontina; Cosson & Germain 1861: 380, sub O. Galii; Bentham 1926: 109, sub O. incurva); Germany (Schultz 1830: 505, sub O. bipontina; Dietrich 1835: t. 147, sub O. tubiflora; Sendtner 1854: 836, sub O. Galii; Iran (Bornmüller 1904: 681, sub O. caryophyllacea); Spain (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 05699; herb. Sánchez Pedraja 10612; herb. Sánchez Pedraja 12264).

Rubia peregrina L. France (G. Moreno Moral MM0073/2010 in herb. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja 13573).

Sherardia arvensis L. (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 227, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Comments:

Taxonomic observations: "They chose a type referable to Orobanche caryophyllacea ... The Committee accepts this lectotypification..." [nom. rej. prop. (Turland & F. Rumsey in Taxon 46: 787-789. 1997); nom. rej. (Brummitt in Taxon 49: 263. 2000)].

Chorological observations: Aedo & al. in Bol. Cien. Nat. R.I.D.E.A. 46: 70 (2001); Bol. Cien. Nat. R.I.D.E.A. 48: 34-35 (2003); Documentos Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 1: 19, 22 t. 10, 27, 28, 29 (2002).

Phylogenetic observations: Carlón & al. in Documentos Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 3: 61 f. 4 ["Phylogenetic relationships"], 63 (2005); Documentos Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 6: 13 f. 2 [phylogenetic relationships] (2008).

Chromosomatic number: 2n = 38 (Hambler 1954, 1955, 1957; Chater & Webb 1972; Rumsey & Jury 1991; Albers & Pusch 1999; Schneeweiss & al. 2004).

Ic.: a, Reichenbach fil. 1862: 98 [162, t. 1783 (2b)]; b, Beck 1890: t.2 f. 42(1); c, inflorescences (on Galium verum L.; Espinosa de Bricia, Spain); d, flower structure (on Galium fruticescens Cav.; Gallejones, Spain); e, flower, in partial long-section (ib.); f, inflorescences (yellow flowering form; Peguera, Spain); g, O. caryophyllacea vs. O. clausonis (Espinosa de Bricia, herb. Sánchez Pedraja 10612 vs. Tarazona, 12854; Spain).

Distribution: Albania, Algeria [unconfirmed, see O. clausonis], Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus [unconfirmed], Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Caucasus, China [unconfirmed], Croatia, Czech Republic, England [United Kingdom], Estonia [unconfirmed], France, Georgia, Germany, Greece [needs to be revised], Hungary, Iran, Iraq [unconfirmed], Italy, Kazakhstan [in error for O. cf. bartlingii], Krim [unconfirmed], Latvia [unconfirmed], Liechtenstein, Lithuania [unconfirmed], Luxembourg, Moldova, Montenegro, Morroco [unconfirmed, see O. clausonis], Netherlands, North Macedonia, Norway [alien], Pakistan [unconfirmed], Poland, Portugal [in error], Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain [p.p., see O. clausonis], Sweden [in error for O. elatior], Switzerland, Syria, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Ukraine.

Mediterranean distribution (Domina & Raab-Straube 2010+, sub O. caryophyllacea s.l.); Iberian Peninsula distribution (Spain).

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Specimens examined and literature records.

Albania / Shqipëri / Shqipëria / Shqipnia (Chater & Webb 1972: 292, sub O. caryophyllacea)

Central Albania / Shqipëria Qendrore: Rumelia (Grisebach 1844: 57, "In Rumelia (Fiedr.)").

Northern Albania / Shqipëria Veriore: "1897 - Iter Albanicum Quintum / 37. Orobanche caryophyllaceae Sm. / Parasitica in Thymo / ad Oukaj sub m. Zukali [Čukali] distr. / Scutari [Shkodër / Qarku i Shkodrës / Shkodra County] 16 Junio / Dott. Antonio Baldacci" (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p04419652 - https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/p04419652 - P 04419652.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/465035154 - https://explore.recolnat.org/occurrence/ADE566096E5544E593172B63D92C8BDA; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2013, sub O. alba); "Orobanche caryophyllacea f. macrantha (Dietr) G. Beck [O. macrantha] / Rrethi i Shkodrës [Shkodër / Qarku i Shkodrës / Shkodra County], östlicher Ortsrand Boge (FR-0120850 - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/3046071041 [n.v.].

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Algeria / Argelia / Algérie / Algerien [unconfirmed, see O. clausonis] (Beck 1930: 232, sub Orobanche caryophyllacea f. atlantica (Batt.) Beck; Domina & Raab-Straube 2010+)

Tlemcen: "Herbier de Ch. d'Alleizette / ... / Orobanche Galii Vaucher / atlantica / Sur Galium et Asperula [?] / Afr. Septle. [Afrique septentrionale] / Terni [Terni Beni Hadiel, Atlas tellien] Juin 1912" (https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/p03428452 - P 03428452.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/474635604 - https://explore.recolnat.org/occurrence/663507FD940D43769BD24EC9A717A51C; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jun 2016 [the specimens seem to correspond to Orobanche chrysacanthi]).

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Andorra / Andorre

Andorra la Vella, 31TCH70 (Cousturier & Gandoger 1913); Andorra (Gandoger 1917: 18).

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Armenia / Hayastan / Armenien / Arménie / Әрмәнстан / Армения (Schiman-Czeika 1964: 16, "Armenia", sub O. vulgaris; Domina & Raab-Straube 2010; Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 64-66 f. 43, sub O. caryophyllacea)

Aragatsotn Province / Арагацотнская область: (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 64-66 f. 43, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Gegharkunik Province / Гехаркуникская область: (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 64-66 f. 43, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Kotayk Province / Котайкская область: (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 64-66 f. 43, sub O. caryophyllacea); Herbarium Universitatis Mosquensis / Plantae Caucasicae Collaboratoribus Horti / Botanici Universitatis Mosquensis Lectae / Orobanche elatior Sutt. / Армения, хр. Цахкунец [Tsakhkunyats]. / ю. Скдон горы Алибек, окр. Л. Сачлу / М.Г. Пименов Е.Б. Алексеев Е.В. Клюйков / Л.П. Томкович Т.А. Остроумова / Л.Ф. Волоснова Т.В. Лаврова Н.В. Груздева / 30. июня [06]. 1977 N.º 1010 (https://plant.depo.msu.ru/open/public/item/MW0717024 - MW 0717024.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018).

Lori Province / Лорийская область: (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 64-66 f. 43, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Shirak Province / Ширакская область: (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 64-66 f. 43, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Syunik Province / Сюникская область: (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 64-66 f. 43, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Tavush Province / Тавушская область: (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 64-66 f. 43, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Vayots Dzor Province / Вайоцдзорская область: (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 64-66 f. 43, sub O. caryophyllacea).

"P. Smirnow. Pl. Armaeniae ross. a. 1929 / Orobanche Galii Duby / на [on] Galium verum L. / ... / 1950 m. / 5.VII.1929. N.º 837 / П. Смирнов [P. Smirnow]" (https://plant.depo.msu.ru/open/public/item/MW0723433 - MW 0723433.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/1697840897; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022).

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Austria / Österreich / Autriche (Reichenbach 1832: 354, sub O. galii; Reichenbach 1832: 354, loc. class. of O. adenostemon; Sauter 1852: 578, loc. class. of O. erubescens Saut.; Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea; Chater & Webb 1972: 292; Pusch 2009: 66, sub O. caryophyllacea; Aeschimann & al. 2004: 290, sub O. caryophyllacea)

Burgenland State: "An Galium Mollugo auf trocknen Wiesen (Mattersburg)" (Reichenbach 1832: 354, sub O. galii); "In Gesellschaft der beiden vorigen fund [Wiesen, Mattersburg, Burgenland] ich sie bei Dresden [Dresden]. — Mitte Juni" (Reichenbach 1832: 354, loc. class. of O. adenostemon).

Salzburg State: "In rad. Lychinidis diurnae [Silene dioica (L.) Clairv.; Lychnis diurna Sibth.] pr. Salisburg [Salzburg] leda 9. Jun. 1851" (Sauter 1852: 578, loc. class. of O. erubescens Saut.).

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Azerbaijan / Azərbaycan / Азәрбајҹан / Azerbaiyán / Aserbaidschan / Azerbaïdjan [former Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic [Azerbaijan SSR] / Азербайджанская Советская Социалистическая Республика [Азербайджанская CCP] (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii; Reuter 1860: 169, loc. class. of O. bushei; Boissier 1879: 509, loc. class. of O. epithymum var. bushei; Beck 1890: 160, loc. class. O. caryophyllacea var. typica f. bushei; Beck 1930: 229, sub O. caryophyllacea; Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 92[87], sub O. vulgaris)

Ganja-Qazakh Economic Region / Gəncə-Daşkəsən iqtisadi rayonu / Гянджа-Дашкесанский экономический район: "Helenendorf [Goygol / Shakashen / Xanlar / Chanlar / Elenendorf / Khanlar / Kol-Yelendorf / Yelenendorf] (leg. Kolenati)" (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea); "Helenendorf [Goygol / Shakashen / Xanlar / Chanlar / Elenendorf / Khanlar / Kol-Yelendorf / Yelenendorf] (Kolenati) ..." (Beck 1930: 229, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic / Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası / Нахичеванская Автономная Республика (former Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic / Нахичеванская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика): 1. "Herb. Buhse, Riga / Orob. Epithymum β bushei / Boiss., Fl. or. IV, 509 (1879) / Orobanche buhsei ... 169 / N.º 345 / In Alindschathal und Dschagrithal / bei Nachitschewan [Nakhchivan / Naxçıvan, Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Azerbaijan] auf Thymus / Serpyllum, mai 1847". – 2. "N.º 345 / Orob. Bushei Reut. n- sp.". – 3. "I. Novopokrovsky. Notae criticae / Orobanche Bushei Reuter / specimen anthenticum! (Syn. O. caryophyllacea Sm. var. Bushei / G. Beck) / 1949-X [m. Novopokrovsky]" (http://re.herbariumle.ru/01015398 - LE 01015398.jpg); 1. "435 = 345? / Orobanche buhsei Reut. ? = 345 / [leg.] Buhse / Dschagrithal". – 2. "O. caryophyllacea Sm. / var. O. Bushei / det. G. Beck [m. Beck]". – 3. "Isotypus". – 4. "Orobanche Buhsei Reut. / Isotypus! / (... Нахичеванская АССР!) / 1960.III.11 Teste: Н. Цвелев [N. Tzvelev]". – 5. "Orobanche vulgaris Poir. / 1963 / det./rev. H. Schiman-Czeika" (http://re.herbariumle.ru/01015399 - LE 01015399.jpg); "In Alindschathal und Dschagrithal bei Nachitschewan [Nakhchivan / Naxçıvan] auf Thymus Serpyllum [?]. N.º 345" (Reuter 1860: 169, loc. class. of O. bushei); "Hab. in Armeniâ Rossicâ prope Nachitschewan [Nakhchivan / Naxçıvan] Thymi serpylli [Thymus serpyllum L.?] parasitica (Buhse!)" (Boissier 1879: 509, loc. class. of O. epithymum var. bushei); "Vidi spec. orig. in herb. Petrop. collecta in Valle Alindscha et Dschagri pr. Nachitschewan" (Beck 1890: 160, loc. class. O. caryophyllacea var. typica f. bushei).

Nagorno-Karabakh Republic / Republic of Artsakh / Республика Арцах / Нагорно-Карабахская Республика (former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast / Нагорно-Карабахская автономная область): "provinc. Karabagh! (Hohenack.)]" (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii); "Lisk ad Wand in mte. Karabasch (f. subfissa leg. Bayern)" (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea); "Lisk ad Wand auf dem Berge Karabasch (Bayern)" (Beck 1930: 229, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Elisabethpol Governorate / Elizavetpol Governorate / Елизаветпольская губерния: "territor. Elisabethpol et ..." (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii); "Jelisabetpol bei Smen Sarudusa" (Beck 1930: 229, sub O. caryophyllacea).

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Belarus / Bielorrusia / Belarús / Biélorussie / Bélarus / Weißrussland / Белоруссия (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii; Domina & Raab-Straube 2010) [unconfirmed]

"Volhynia [Волинь /Валынь / Wołyń] (Besser, Eichw." (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii).

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Belgique / Belgium / België / Bélgica (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 233, loc. class. of O. caryophyllacea f. albiflora; Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea; Chater & Webb 1972: 292, sub O. caryophyllacea)

Flemish Community / Communauté flamande / Vlaamse Gemeenschap / Comunidad Flamenca

West Flanders Province / West-Vlaanderen / West Vloandern / Flandre-Occidentale / Flandes Occidental: "Belgien [Belgium], in den Dünen bei Lisseweghe [Bruges]" (Beck 1930: 233, loc. class. of O. caryophyllacea f. albiflora ( Baguet) Beck).

Wallonia / Wallonie / Waloneye / Wallonien / Valonia

Namur / Nameur / Namen Province: Dourbes [50°05'09.2"N 4°34'02.3"E], Viroinval, Namen, 13 Jun 2021 (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/82869427 - https://www.gbif.org/es/occurrence/3307131903 by Francis Turkelboom in iNaturalist, accessed Mar 2022).

"Belgien: ! Namur, Yvoir, Ostende, Lisseweghe" (Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea).

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Bosnia and Herzegovina / Bosnia y Herzegovina / Bosna i Hercegovina / Босна и Херцеговина (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea)

"Bosnien, verbreitet, Bihać (Beck, Fiala), Petrovac, Grmeč Plan., Livno (Beck), Travnik, Vlašić (Sendtner n. 567, 568), Vares (Sendtner), Sarajevo, Trebevic — 1600 m (Beck, K. Maly), Igman- und Romanija-Plan. (Beck), Klek-Plan. (Fiala), und an anderen Orten; Hercegowina, Velez-Plan. (Beck) und Baba-Plan. (Hawelka), Trebinje und auf dem Leotar (Beck), in der Bijela gora und auf dem Orjen-Gebirge (Vandas) etc." (Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea).

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Bulgaria / България / Bulgarie / Bulgarien (Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea; Chater & Webb 1972: 292, sub O. caryophyllacea; Stoyanov 2012: 298-299, sub O. caryophyllacea; Stoyanov 2020: 85-88, sub O. caryophyllacea)

Bulgarien!: Slivno (Skorpil), Lovec [Lovets] (Urumoff), Philippopel, Stanimaka (Velenovsky), Sofia (Toser), Trnovo (Mrkvicka)" (Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Kyustendil Province / Област Кюстендил: "Herb. Lugd. Batav. / Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. / PC van Welzen / N.º 24 / 13-VII-1979 / [det.] PC van W. 12-I-81 / Bulgarije; Rila klooster [Rila Monastery Nature Park, Rhodopes Mountains / Родопи / Rodopi Ροδόπη)], 42°08'00.0"N 23°20'00.0"E 1060 m / ..." (https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.2817739 - L 2817739.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/2514552215; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022, sub O. alba).

Pernik Province / Област Перник: "lectotype / Labelling: Orobanche caryophyllaceae var. macrolepis T.Georg.; Loc. Lyulinski livedi [Lyulin meadows], VI, 1924; Leg. Стоянов и Стефанов [M. Stoyanoff & B. Stefanoff] Collection: Agricultural University of Plovdiv — Herbarium (SOA) [No.: 10434]" (https://www.nmnhs.com/images/e-natura/photos-types/1200/soa/SOA_10434.jpg - https://www.nmnhs.com/images/e-natura/photos-types/1200/soa/SOA_10434_0133.jpg - https://www.nmnhs.com/e-natura/types-bulgaria/type_id_en-SOAXXXXX0121.html ["Lectotypus: O. caryophyllaceae var. macrolepis T. Georgiev. Люлински ливади [Lyulin meadows (Lyulin Mountain / Люлин планинаn)], VI, 1924 (leg. Стоянов & Стефанов) SOA 10434 (Делипавлов1995) (!) / Прицветници значително по-дълги от цветовете. Венче жълто. / Разпространение: Софийски р-н [Sofia district], Знеполски р-н [Znepol district], Родопи [Rodopi] (з), от 800 докъм 1050 m" (Stoyanov 2020: 87, sub O. caryophyllacea)]); "O. caryophyllacea var. macrolepis T. Georgiev / Нови данни: 5.3 – MH-43. по пътя между прохода Вратник и Сливен, 830 m, 10.07.2008, К. Стоянов, SOA s.n.; 17.1 – KG-85, по пустеещи тревисти места, южно от с. Жребичко, Пещерско, 800 m, 04.07.1989, Д. Делипавлов, SOA 47728. Разпространение в страната: 6, 7. Посочва се за 19 (Георгиев 1937)" (Stoyanov 2012: 299, sub O. caryophyllacea).

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Caucasus / Cáucaso / Caucasia / Кавказ (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii; Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 229, sub O. caryophyllacea; Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 92[87], sub O. vulgaris; Schiman-Czeika 1964: 16, "Caucasia", sub O. vulgaris)

Ciscaucasia / North Caucasus / Северный Кавказ / Предкавказье (Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia) (Beck 1930: 229, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Transcaucasia / South Caucasus / Южный Кавказ / Закавказье (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia) (Beck 1930: 229, sub O. caryophyllacea).

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China / Chine / Китай / 中国 [unconfirmed] (O. caryophyllacea in CVH, accessed Jun 2015)

"China? (siehe oben)" (Beck 1930: 229, sub O. caryophyllacea); Catalogue of Life China, 2013 Annual Checklist (China checklist of higher plants, 2013).

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Croatia / Hrvatska Croacia / Kroatien / Croatie (Reichenbach 1829: 38 [t. 673 f. 905, t. 674 f. 906 f. 907], sub O. strobiligena; Reichenbach f. 1862: 98, sub O. caryophyllacea var. strobiligena (Rchb.) Rchb. f.; Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea; Chater & Webb 1972: 292, sub O. caryophyllacea)

"Etiam in Dalmatia ab ill nostro de Visiani indicatur" (Reichenbach 1829: 38 [t. 673 f. 905, t. 674 f. 906 f. 907], sub O. strobiligena; Reichenbach f. 1862: 98, sub O. caryophyllacea var. strobiligena (Rchb.) Rchb. f.); "Istrien: Flitsch, Karfreit, Kuk bei Woltschach (Beck), Triest, Monte Maggiore, Insel Veglia ... Croatien, Senj, Vrtli (Herb. Degen), Scoglio San Marco (nach Hirc) ... Dalmatien, Ervenik, Zara = Zadar, Imoski (Preissecker), auf dem Orjen bei Crkvica (Vierhapper)" (Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea).

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Czech Republic / República Checa / Česká republika / Tschechischen Republik (Beck 1890: 158, loc. class. of O. caryophyllacea var. typica subf. fallax; Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea; Chater & Webb 1972: 292, sub O. caryophyllacea; Pusch 2009: 66, sub O. caryophyllacea; Zázvorka 2000: 504; Domina & Raab-Straube 2010+)

South Moravian Region / Jihomoravský kraj / Südmährische Region: "Herbarium Wendlandt / Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. / Znojmo / Mähren, Geisssteig bei Luggau [= Lukov nad Dyjí] / 1880-06 / Oborny, A. s.n." (https://w.jacq.org/W20160013083 - W 2016-0013083 - https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=1134075 [n.v.]); "Burgholz [Purkrábka] prope Znaim [Znojmo] Moraviae (leg. Oborny) !" (Beck 1890: 158, loc. class. of O. caryophyllacea var. typica subf. fallax).

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England / Inglaterra / Angleterre [United Kingdom] (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Chater & Webb 1972: 292, sub O. caryophyllacea; Rumsey & Jury 1991: 266, sub O. caryophyllacea; https://www.brc.ac.uk/plantatlas/plant/orobanche-caryophyllacea - https://bsbi.org/maps?taxonid=2cd4p9h.924, accessed Mar 2022; https://species.nbnatlas.org/species/NHMSYS0000461377, accessed Apr 2022)

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Estonia / Estland / Eesti / Эстония (Ledebour 1849: 317, "Livonia [see Latvia]", sub O. Galii; Tzvelev 1981[2001]: 457, "Baltic", sub O. caryophyllacea; Domina & Raab-Straube 2010+) [unconfirmed]

"Herbarium Musei Botanici Universitatis Tartuensis / Flora Estonica / Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. / Jõhvi khk., Mäetaguse-Metsküla / ... / 22.VII.1938 / Joh. Precht" (TU 301920.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/3016535356; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022, sub O. cf. bartlingii).

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France / Francia / Frankreich (Vaucher 1827: 55, loc. class. of O. du Galium Mollugo Vaucher; Grenier 1853: 631-632, sub O. galii; Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Bentham 1926: 109, loc. class. of O. incurva; Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea; Chater & Webb 1972: 292, sub O. caryophyllacea; Aeschimann & al. 2004: 290; Tela Botanica, accessed Jan 2009)

Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes [Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes]

Ain (01): Gex (Beck 1930: 227, "G. molle Gilib. (f. A. Lendner in Bull. herb. Boissier 2. ser. II. [1902] 652)", sub O. caryophyllacea).

Isère (38): "Herbier d Luizet / Orobanche Laserpitii-Sileris / (Rapin) / Grenoble (Isère): pentes de St. Eynard, au- / dessus de la route du Sappey. / Altitude 1200 m / Flore de France   20 Juillet 1888 / (3072)" (https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/p04384412 - P 04384412.jpg - hb. Guétrot - http://sonneratphoto.mnhn.fr/2011/12/27/3/P04384412.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/464649260 - https://explore.recolnat.org/occurrence/ACF97A863FB54EB49E84A3CA98372BC9; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2012 [the sheet contains three specimens, which don't correspond to O. laserpitii-sileris. The central specimen seems to correspond to O. alsatica and the two lateral specimens to O. caryophyllacea]); Nº 3834. Orobanche Galii Vaucher ... Le Rondeau, près Grenoble (Isère): le lon de haies. Mai-juin 1882. Arvet-T., abb. Chaboisseau, abb. Faure abb. Guétal. (P 04419437; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jun 2016).

Puy-de-Dôme (63): "Herb. E. Gonod d'Artemare / Orobanche Galii Duby / Clermont-Ferrand / Puy-de-Croüel / sur les racines / de l'Asperula galioides [Asperula galioides M. Bieb. = Galium glaucum L.] 1er juin 94 [1894] / E. Gonod d'Artemare" (https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/um/collection/mpu/item/mpu225469 - MPU 225469.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/1807434033; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2022).

Corse / Corsica / Córcega (20) [unconfirmed] (Habashi & Jeanmonod 2008: 30 "cette espèce n'est présente en Corse")

Grand Est / Great East / Großer Osten [Alsace / Elsass / Elsaß / Alsacia-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine / Lothringen / Louréne / Lorena]

Haut-Rhin (68): "Orobanche elatior Sutt / O. major L. / 30 Mai 1898 / Bollenberg [Réserve naturelle régionale des collines de Rouffach] / (Alsace) / ... / 2983 ..." (https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/p04405863 - P 04405863.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/465155855 - https://explore.recolnat.org/occurrence/BCC76272D47E483EB55AC6C0BB97C945; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018).

Marne (51): "Route Sacy - Villedomange / Sur Galium / 7.84 / 3315 O. caryophyllacea ... [C. Worms]" (https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/worms/collection/worms/item/worms-833 - WORMS-833.jpg - https://mediaphoto.mnhn.fr/media/1515086729888rRSFeQ4rHej6aGiG; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022).

Île-de-France

Paris (75): "Elle croît dans les prés secs et sablonneux, aux environs de Paris, etc." (Lamarck & Candolle 1805: 489, sub O vulgaris Lam.).

Seine-et-Marne (77): "6285 / Orobanchées. / Orobanche Galii Duby / 13 juin 1963 - Friche, près de la Ferme / de Galy [La Porte de Noisy / Ferme de Gally / Ferme de Bailly], Parc de Triamon, / Versailles (Seine-et-Oise [78])" (https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/p00596461 - P 00596461.jpg - hb. Bouby - http://sonneratphoto.mnhn.fr/2012/01/02/1/P00596461.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/437955921 - https://explore.recolnat.org/occurrence/E7A1ABA4E6B34789A701784C2B4EEABD; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2013).

Val-de-Marne (94): Bois de Vincennes (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Occitanie / Occitània [Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrénées]

Aude (11): junto al Cap des Trois Frères, pr. la Franqui (Aude), 03º 02’ 50’’ E, 42º 55’ 35’’ N, 50 m, matorral-pastizal en suelos pedregosos, calcáreos, probablemente parasitaría un Galium que se veía junto a ella, G. Moreno Moral, 1-V-2009 (obs., bastante frecuente, más adelantada la floración que en los ejemplares de O. gracilis); St-Pierre, above Leucate-Plage, 42°54'27.4"N 3°02'54.9"E, 35 m, parasitizing Rubia peregrina in sunny rocky slope on road, G. Moreno Moral MM0073/2010, 23 May 2010 (herb. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja 13573).

Aveyron (12): 1. "Orobanche Galii / Sur Galium mollugo / pente sud du causse Noir / près de Millau 18.5.27". – 2. "Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. / (= O. galii Duby) / Z.Y. Zhang [张志耘] [1985]85.2.6" (PE 01463727 - https://www.cvh.ac.cn/spms/detail.php?id=ec33273b; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022).

Haute-Garonne (31): "H. Les friches herbeuses des coteaux, sur les racines du Galium-glaucum. Toulouse: à Pech-David et sur la même ligne de coteaux, à Lacroix-Falgarde, à Clermont [Clermont-le-Fort], à Venerque. C. C. C.; sur les racines du Galium-mollugo, une seule fois à Venerque." (Noulet 1837: 483, sub O. major Poll.).

Hautes-Pyrénées (65): "Cirque de Gavarnie Pyrenees [42°42'01.0"N 0°00'58.8"W, Gavarnie-Gèdre]", 11 Jul 2008 (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/71864257 by Leonard Worthington, sub O. caryophyllacea, in iNaturalist, accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2022, sub O. teucrii on Teucrium pyrenaicum).

Hérault (34): "Herbier de la Flore de Montpellier par Lt et B. / Orobanche Galii Duby / Péguairolles de Lodève [Pégairolles-de-Buèges], parasite sur / le Galium erectum [Galium erectum Huds. (1762) non (1778) = Galium album Mill. subsp. album] Juin 1866 / Barrandon" https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/um/collection/mpu/item/mpu507077 - MPU 507077.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/1807557099 - https://explore.recolnat.org/occurrence/3EA3C3CC86D04DC5A19B849F0E76FC95; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2022).

Pyrénées-Orientales / Eastern Pyrenees / Pirineus Orientals / Pirenèus Orientals / Pirineos Orientales (66): "Triviale [Pyrénées]" (Lapeyrouse 1813: 359, sub O. caryophyllacea); "A Mont-Louis [Montlluís / el Vilar d'Ovansa, 42°30'33.1"N 2°07'14.9"E (Prades)], sur le Galium verum" (Bentham 1926: 109, loc. class. of O. incurva); "Pyrénées-Orientales, Mont-Louis (Benth.)" (Grenier 1853: 637, sub O. major L.).

Pays de la Loire: "Herbier L. Chevallier Précigné (Sarthe). / Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm / — Galii Duby / M & L. [Maine-et-Loire]: Saint-Jean-des-Marais [Saint-Clément-de-la-Place] ... sur / le G. verum ... /16-5-1908" (https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/p04405521 - P 04405521.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/464794194 - https://explore.recolnat.org/occurrence/CF2F97DEDF6D4F829FFAC7F63915F99E; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022).

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Georgia / Sakartvelo / Georgien / Géorgie / Грузия (former Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic [Georgian SSR] / Грузинская Советская Социалистическая Республика [Грузинская ССР]) (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii; Koch 1849: 665, loc. class. of O. quadrifida; Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 229, sub O. caryophyllacea; Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 92[87], sub O. vulgaris; Tarkhnishvili & Chaladze 2013)

Kakheti: "Kachetia! et ... (Eichw.)" (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii).

Kvemo Kartli: "An der Straße zwischen Tbilisi und Kap'anakoh'i (Richtung Grenze zu Aserbaidschan) W von Rustavi / Abwitternde Konglomeratwände; auf Galium sp. / 2002-05-27 / Schneeweiß, G." (https://wu.jacq.org/WU0025914 - WU 0025914 - https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=31187 - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/1135454585 [n.v.]).

Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti: "Mingrelia [Samegrelo]" (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii).

Samtskhe-Javakheti / Самцхе-Джавахети: "Somchetia [Somkhiti] ! (Eichw.)" (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii); "pr. Borshorn [Borjomi?] (leg. G. Radde)!" (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea); "Transkaukasien: Georgien: Prov. Tiflis bei Borjom [Borjomi] (Radde, Akinfiew)" (Beck 1930: 229, sub O. caryophyllacea); "Orobanche caryophyllacea / Samtskhe-Javakheti, Kleiner Kaukasus: Westteil des Trialetischen Gebirges: Tal des Flusses Mtkvari (Kura): zwischen Atsquri [Atskuri] und Bordzhomi [Borjomi], 17--18 Straßenkilometer vor Bordzhomi / 2001-05-21 / Schneeweiß, G. & Tribsch, A. 6653" (https://wu.jacq.org/WU0022608 - WU 0022608 - https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=6207 (Schneeweiss & al. 2004)); Samtskhe-Javakheti, Kleiner Kaukasus: Westteil des Trialetischen Gebirges: Tal des Flusses Mtkvari (Kura): zwischen Atsquri [Atskuri] und Bordzhomi [Borjomi], 17--18 Straßenkilometer vor Bordzhomi / 2001-05-21 / Schneeweiß, G. & Tribsch, A. 6653 (https://wu.jacq.org/WU0022609  - WU 0022609 - https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=5993 (Schneeweiss & al. 2004)).

Tbilisi / Тбилиси: "Georgia!, Tiflis (leg. Bayern)" (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea); "Tiflis (Bayern)" (Beck 1930: 229, sub O. caryophyllacea).

No precise location given: "et provinciis caucasicis (M. a Bieb.), [Iberia! (Eichw., Wilhelms pl. exs.)..." (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii).

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Germany / Deutschland / Alemania / Allemagne (Wallroth 1822: 309, loc. class. of O. sparsiflora; Reichenbach 1829: 38 [t. 673 f. 905, t. 674 f. 906 f. 907], loc. class. of O. strobiligena; Reichenbach 1829: 39 [t. 675 f. 908], loc. class. of O laxiflora; Reichenbach 1832: 354, loc. class. of O. adenostemon; Dietrich 1835: t. 147, loc. class. of O. tubiflora; Dietrich 1839: t. 437, loc. class. of O. krausei; Dietrich 1839: 438, loc. class. of O. macrantha; Dietrich 1839: 439, loc. class. of O. gilva; Dietrich 1839: 441, loc. class. of O. citrina; Meyer 1849: 404, sub O. major L. (p.p.); Reichenbach f. 1862: 98, loc. class. of O. caryophyllacea var. strobiligena (Rchb.) Rchb. f.; Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1890: 159, loc. class. of O. caryophyllacea var. gymnantha; Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea; Chater & Webb 1972: 292, sub O. caryophyllacea; Pusch 2009: 66, sub O. caryophyllacea; Aeschimann & al. 2004: 290, sub O. caryophyllacea)

Bavaria State / Bayern / Freistaat Bayern: "Augsburg (auch auf Gal. boreale): Caflisch" (Sendtner 1854: 836, sub O. Galii).

Brandenburg State: "Auf sonnigen Anhöhen in Sandboden bei Baumgartenbrück hinter Potsdam im Jahr 1834 auf einer Excursion die ich in Begleitung meines Freundes, des Herr Ca binels-Secretairs Sasse, eines eifrigen Botanikers, machte, entdeckt, wo sie zu meh reren zwisclien Büschen von Galium verum und Artemisia campestris vorkam, also wahrscheinlich auf einer von beiden stand, was ich leider nicht habe ausmitteln kön nen. Blüht im Juli" (Dietrich 1835: t. 147, loc. class. of O. tubiflora); "An trocknen begrasten Orten. Mutterpflanze unbekannt. Brandenburg: am Chausseehause dicht vor dem Dorfe Berge hinter Nauen [Havelland], vom Herrn Geheimen Regierungsrath Krause entdeckt, dem zu Ehren ich sie benannt habe. Blüht im Juni und Juli" (Dietrich 1839: t. 437, loc. class. of O. krausei; Reuter 1847: 21; Nyman 1881: 559); "An trocknen begrasten Orten. Mutterpflanze unbekannt. Brandenburg: am Chausseehause dicht vor dem Dorfe Berge hinter Nauen [Havelland], vom Herrn Geheimen Regierungsrath Krause entdeckt. Blüht im Juni und Juli" (Dietrich 1839: 438, loc. class. of O. macrantha; Reuter 1847: 21; Nyman 1854-1855: 130); = Orobanche laxiflora Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: 39 [t. 675 f. 908] (1829) (Beck 1890: 156). Ind. loc.: ); "An trocknen, begrasten Orten. Mutterpflanze unbekannt. Brandenburg: am Cbausseehause dicht vor dem Dorfe Berge hinter Nauen [Havelland]; vom Herrn Geheimen Regierungsrath Krause entdeckt. Blüht im Juni und Juli" (Dietrich 1839: 439, loc. class. of O. gilva; Reuter 1847: 21; Nyman 1881: 559); "An trocknen begrasten Orten. Mutterpflanze unbekannt. Brandenburg: am Chausseehause dieht vor dem Dorfe Berge binter Nauen [Havelland]; vom Herrn Geheimen Regierungsrath Krause entdeckt. Blüht im Juni und Juli" (Dietrich 1839: 441, loc. class. of O. citrina; Reuter 1847: 21; Nyman 1881: 559 "tota planta, incl. stigmate, lutea").

Hesse State / State of Hessen / Land Hessen: "In collibus et promontoriis graminosis sylvaticis inter Bottendorf [Burgwald, Waldeck-Frankenberg] et Schweinsroda. Jun." (Wallroth 1822: 309, loc. class. of O. sparsiflora). Ind. loc.: Germany, Hessen / Hesse: ); "Germania [Germany]: prope Hanau [Main-Kinzig-Kreis] subdefloratam leg. Mertin. Vidi in herb. d. A. Braun Berolin" (Beck 1890: 159, loc. class. of O. caryophyllacea var. gymnantha).

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern: Hiddensee [54°36'03.9"N 13°07'22.7"E], 25 May 2020 (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/47545968 by cloudya in iNaturalist, accessed Apr 2022).

Rhineland-Palatinate State / Rheinland-Pfalz: [Zweibrücken] "In den ersten Tagen des Juni besuchte ich den Wohnort der, in meinem „Beilrag zur Kenntnifs der deutschen Orobanchen" unter dem Namen Orohanche bipontina aufgefübrten Pflanze, und überzeugte mich durch das Ausgraben vieler Exemplare, dafs dieselbe auf der Wurzel von Galium verum schmarotze" (Schultz 1829: 464, loc. class. of O. bipontina; Schultz 1829: 464; Schultz 1830: 500, 505 "1. O. bipontina Schultz (O. major Poll., vulgaris Koch et Ziz) ... O. caryophyllacea Sm. ... Reichb. l. c. [Fl. Germ. exsicc.] Nr. 60 ... auf Galium verum ..."; Reichenbach 1832: 354, sub O. caryophyllacea Sm.; Reuter 1847: 21; Reichenbach f. 1862: 97; Nyman 1881: 559, "exs. gall. germ. 496").

Saxony State / Freistaat Sachsen / Free State of Saxony / Swobodny stat Sakska: 1. "Herbarium Dresdense / Orobanche laxiflora Rchb. / Fl. Dresd. — leg. autor, cl. L. Reichenbach / Ex herb. mus. nat. K.-M.-Stadt". – 2. "Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. / Jürgen Pusch 6.9.1989" (DR 014181 - https://dr.jacq.org/DR014181; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022!, syntype of O laxiflora Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: 39 [t. 675 f. 908] (1829)); "908 .. utranque Dresdae legi [Dresden] ... 910. emarcida, Genevae [Geneva, Switzerland] lecta; cl. Radius" (Reichenbach 1829: 39 [t. 675 f. 908], loc. class. of O laxiflora); 1. "Herbarium Dresdense [Dresden, Free State of Saxony, Germany] [Dresden, Free State of Saxony, Germany] / Orobanche strobiligena / Reichbach. ... / = O. caryophyllacea Smith / O. stigm citrin feav. [?] / v. d. Dohnaischen Schlage ... (Flor citrin)". – 2. "Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. / Jürgen Pusch 5.9.1989" (DR 014172 - https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=1258786; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022!, syntype? of O. strobiligena); "60. Orobanche caryophyllacea / Sm. / Rchb. pl. crit. VII. ic. 890. 891. papyracea DC. / Auf Wiesen vor dem Dohnaer Schlage bei Dresden, d. 20. / Juni: Hübner" (https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/p04419651 - P 04419651.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/465178128 - https://explore.recolnat.org/occurrence/4AD25E7D63B24E099320BE34737A8324; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jun 2016 [only one specimen near its label, the other specimens of this sheet are not this species (cf. O. minor)]); "62. Orobanche vulgaris Poir. / Gaud. helv. IV t. II. Rchb. pl. crit. VII. ic. 905. 906. / Auf einer trocknen Wiese bei Dresden im Juni: Rchb. / ..." (https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/p04419659 - P04419659.jpg - http://www.gbif.org/occurrence/465178127 - https://explore.recolnat.org/occurrence/0952483584664F78BB369ABD3F71BE87; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022 [only one specimen near its label, the other specimens of this sheet are not this species [O. gracilis]); "905. et ... 906. et var. ... 907. legi in prato sicco Fl. Dresd. inter leguminosas varias [Dresden]" (Reichenbach 1829: 38 [t. 673 f. 905, t. 674 f. 906 f. 907], loc. class. of O. strobiligena; Reichenbach f. 1862: 98, loc. class. of O. caryophyllacea var. strobiligena (Rchb.) Rchb. f.); "In Gesellschaft der beiden vorigen fund [Wiesen, Mattersburg, Burgenland, Austrian] ich sie bei Dresden [Dresden]. — Mitte Juni" (Reichenbach 1832: 354, loc. class. of O. adenostemon); "Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. f. typica G. Schneid. / ... Saxonia: Meissen  ... / Juni 1892 leg. Leonhardt" (https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/p04419671 - P 04419671.jpg - hb. Drake - http://www.gbif.org/occurrence/465035149 - https://explore.recolnat.org/occurrence/0F46236EBEC84DAA8837CD351A0C79BD; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022).

"Deutschland: verbreitet und häufig, Baden (Karlsruhe), Hessen (Mainz), Rheinland (Coblenz), Oldenburg, Insel Rügen, und Usedom, im Harz, in Thüringen, Preußen (Halle a. S., Halberstadt, Potsdam, Frankfurt a. 0. und an anderen Orten), Sachsen (Dresden, Meißen a. E.), Schlesien, Württemberg, Bayern (München, Pfronten), etc." (Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea).

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Greece / Grecia / Ελλάδα / Hellas [the distribution needs to be revised] (Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea; Chater & Webb 1972: 292, sub O. caryophyllacea; Strid & Tan 1991: 274, sub O. caryophyllacea; https://portal.cybertaxonomy.org/flora-greece...taxon/c7c42674-1d8d-4321-9da4-e9545cc2e732 in Flora of Greece Web (The), accessed Apr 2022)

Central Greece / Περιφέρεια Στερεάς Ελλάδας / Periféria Stereás Elládhas: "Sterea Ellas: ?Iti!" (Strid & Tan 1991: 274, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Central Macedonia / Κεντρική Μακεδονία / Kentrikí Makedonía: "North Central: Olimbos [Mount Olympus / Όλυμπος (Pieria / Πιερία)] (several places!), Voras [Voras Mountains / Όρος Βόρας / Boras / Nidže] (Voltiotis 1981b: 243)" (Strid & Tan 1991: 274, sub O. caryophyllacea); "Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. / Nomos: Chalkidikis (Halkidiki / Χαλκιδική), north of Paliouri village / Artist: Willing, Eckhard Created: 2019-05-14" (https://portal.cybertaxonomy.org/flora-greece...taxon/c7c42674-1d8d-4321-9da4-e9545cc2e732 in Flora of Greece Web (The); accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022 [sub O. alba]); "Herbarium Willing / ... Nr.: 298630 / ... / Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. / GR: NO Paliouri. 14.05.2019 / Kiefernwald, Krautfluren, 182 m / leg.: E. & R. Willing ... det. E. Willing" (B 10 1089282 - https://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B101089282 - https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=1604744 - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/2805013814; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022 [sub O. alba]); "Herbarium Willing / ... Nr.: 299054 / ... / Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. / GR: N Simantra (Halkidiki / Χαλκιδική). 16.05.2019 / Hartlaubgebüsch, 440 m ... 40°23'03.0"N 23°19'44.0"E / leg.: E. & R. Willing ... det. E. Willing" (B 10 1089284 - https://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B101089284 - https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=1604746 - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/2805017823; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022 [sub O. alba]); "Herbarium Willing / ... Nr.: 299744 / ... / Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. / GR: SW Paleokastro. 19.05.2019 / Q.coccifera-Geb., felsige Krautfluren, 534 m. ... 40°26'28.0"N 23°25'25.0"E / leg.: E. & R. Willing ... det. E. Willing" (B 10 1089285 - http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B101089285 - https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=1604747 - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/2805008833; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022 [sub O. alba]).

Eastern Macedonia and Thrace / Ανατολική Μακεδονία και Θράκη: "North East: Pangeon [Pangaion Hills / Παγγαίο / Pangaeon (Kavala / Περιφερειακή Ενότητα Καβάλας)]" (Strid & Tan 1991: 274, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Western Macedonia / Δυτική Μακεδονία: "Herbarium Willing / ... Nr.: 296141 / ... / Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. / GR: NO Velventos [Βελβεντός]. 04.05.2019 / Felswand, Straßenrand, Platanen, 336 m ... 40°19'06.0"N 22°05'49.0"E / leg.: E. & R. Willing ... det. E. Willing" (B 10 1089281 - https://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B101089281 - https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=1604743 - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/2805009825; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022 [sub O. alba, on Thymus sp.]).

"Greece (East Aegean islands present; East Central Greece present; Ionian Islands present; Kiklades present; North Aegean islands present; North Central Greece present; North Pindos present; North-East Greece present; Peloponnisos present; South Pindos present; Sterea Ellas present)" (https://portal.cybertaxonomy.org/flora-greece...taxon/c7c42674-1d8d-4321-9da4-e9545cc2e732 in Flora of Greece Web (The), accessed Apr 2022).

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Hungary / Magyarország / Hungría / Ungarn (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea; Chater & Webb 1972: 292, sub O. caryophyllacea)

Pest County / Pest megye: "Börzsöny mnts, Márianosztra [47°53'10.5"N 18°51'58.1"E]", 9 May 2020 (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/109029463 - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/3747270708 by Gábor Keresztes in iNaturalist, accessed Apr 2022).

"Ungarn: in den Com. Pest, Feher, Hont, Komarom (Pest, Ofen, Stuhlweissenburg (= Székes Fehérvár) u. a. O." (Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea).

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Iran / Irán / Иран / Persia / Persien (Bornmüller 1904: 681, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea; Bornmüller & Gauba 1942: 221, sub O. caryophyllacea; Schiman-Czeika 1964: 16, "Persia", sub O. vulgaris; Gilli 1979: 297, sub O. caryophyllacea; Iranshahr ‎2008, sub O. caryophyllacea; Pusch 2009: 66, "Iran", sub O. caryophyllacea)

Alborz Province: "Elburz: M. Seman, Shahjan, Buhse" (Schiman-Czeika 1964: 16, sub O. vulgaris).

Kermanshah Province [unconfirmed]: "729 / Dr. Fr. Nábělek, Iter turcico-persicum 1909-10. / Orobanche maior L. / flores purpureo-brunnei, stigma luteum. / 5.V.1910 / Kurdistania Pers.: supra pagum Režab [Rajab] dit. Kasr-i-Širin [Qasr-e Shirin County] prope confines / turcicos dit. Hannibin / alt. ca. / 1200 m. Ad Salviae sp. / det.-leg. VIII.1914 Dr. Fr. Nábělek" (http://ibot.sav.sk/herbarium/object/SAV0003252 - SAV 0003252.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/1831309272; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Aug 2018, sub O. anatolica); "Kurdistania Persica: supra pagum Režab dit. Kasr-i-Širin [Qasr-e Shirin County], ad Salviae sp. alt. ca. 1200 m. 5.V.1910 (No. 729)" (Nábĕlek 1926: 38, sub O. maior L.); idem (Schiman-Czeika 1964: 17, sub O. maior L.).

Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province: "... No: 2278  20.05.2009 / Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. / Kohgīlūyeh va Bowyer Aḩmad Prov., Yasuj, Ab-Nahr / 30°41'40.6"N 51°40'39.6"E / 2459 m / Leg.: H. Moazzeni & A. Pirani 4032 / Det.: G. Zare 26.06.2011" (TMRC 0002278 - https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=961205; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022 [specimens of complicated determination, but do not seem to correspond to this species]).

Kurdistan Province / Kordestan Province: "Kurd. [Iranian Kurdistan]: Marivan, 1600-1700 m, Jacobs 6550! ... "Kurdistania [Kurdistan / Curdistan]" (Schiman-Czeika 1964: 16, sub O. vulgaris).

Māzandarān / Mazandaran Province: "Persia borealis: Elburs [Alborz range], ad basin montis Demawend [Mount Damavand (Amol County)], 2000 m. s. m.; in radice Galii veri L. [Galium verum L.] crescens; 15.VII.1902 (Bornm., iter Persicum II, n. 7923; f. macrantha Dietr. -Monogr. 156)" (Bornmüller 1904: 681, sub O. caryophyllacea); "Elburs [Alborz range]: Kandavan, Pole Zangulé [Pol-e Zanguleh (Kuhestan Rural District, Kelardasht District, Chalus County)], Buschwald, 2300 m (21.VII.1938; no.1670)" (Bornmüller & Gauba 1942: 221, sub O. caryophyllacea); "Maz.: Kandavan, Pol-e Zanguleh, 2300 m, Gauba 1670! ... Elburz [Alborz / البرز / Alburz / Elborz]: Damavand, 2000 m, Bornm. 7923!" (Schiman-Czeika 1964: 16, sub O. vulgaris); "Maz.: in valle Lar [Lar National Park], 2450 m, Wdb. & Assadi 13381" (Gilli 1979: 297, sub O. caryophyllacea var. caryophyllacea f. macrantha).

Tehran Province: "Tehr.: In valle Lar [Lar National Park] supra Gachesar [Gach Sar, Nesa Rural District, Asara District, Karaj County], 2300 m, Bornm. 7918!, 7919" (Schiman-Czeika 1964: 16, sub O. vulgaris).

West Azerbaijan Province: "Azerb,: Kuh Kanī Ziarat [Kūh-e Kānī Zīārat] N. Habashi Bala prope Qotur, 2300-3000 m, W. Rech. & Renz 49712" (Gilli 1979: 297, sub O. caryophyllacea var. caryophyllacea subf. sparsiflora).

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Iraq / Irak / Ирак [unconfirmed] (Al-Asadi & Al-Mayah 2016: 66, sub O. caryophyllacea)

Sulaymaniyah Governorate: "while the other two O. caryophyllacea and O. reticulata collected from the western part of the district on Pera-Magron mountain [Shak-i Pira Magrun / Jabal Birah Magrun / Pira Magroon, Dokan District / Sulaymaniyah District] (Fig. 1)" (Al-Asadi & Al-Mayah 2016: 66, sub O. caryophyllacea [the photographs (Fig.1 B1-3) do not seem to correspond to O. caryophyllacea]).

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Italy / Italia / Italien (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea; Chater & Webb 1972: 292, sub O. caryophyllacea; Pusch 2009: 66, sub O. caryophyllacea; Aeschimann & al. 2004: 290, sub O. caryophyllacea; O. caryophyllacea in https://www.floraitaliae.actaplantarum.org/viewtopic.php?f=95&t=8613, accessed Apr 2022)

Aosta Valley / Valle d'Aosta / Val d'Aosta (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea)

"Aosta" (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Calabria

Cosenza (CS): "O. Teucrii Holandre. Wird von Beck, Monogr. der Gattung Orohanche, pag. 157, zu O. caryophyllacea Sm. f. vulgaris ge zogen. Wächst auf den Wurzeln der Sideritis brutia, manche Stöcke derselben verwüstend, in Calabrien: Dirupata di Morano [Morano Calabro, Parco nazionale del Pollino], 1100-1300 m s. m." (Huter & al. 1907: 354, loc. class. of O. sideritidis); "in monte Dirupata di Morano [Morano Calabro, Parco nazionale del Pollino] Calabriae" (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Marche

Macerata (MC): "Gathered in shrubby hills near Valcimara [Valcimarra, Caldarola], at the foot of the Apennines [Appennino umbro-marchigiano, Appennini / Apennine Mountains / Montes Apeninos], in April 1787" (Smith 1798: 169, loc class. of O. caryophyllacea Sm.).

Piemonte (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea)

"Piemont in valle Valdensium" (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Sicily / Sicilia / Sizilien (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea; Chater & Webb 1972: 292, sub O. caryophyllacea; Domina & Colombo 2005: 100, sub O. caryophyllacea, Domina & Mazzola 2007: 224, sub O. alexandri, p.p.)

Palermo Province: "Poggio San Francesco (Palermo), on Galium lucidum, 9.6.2004, Domina (PAL)" (Domina & Colombo 2005: 100, sub O. caryophyllacea); "NAP-Gussone Sicilia (a) Orobanche alexandri Tin. / Catalfano [manu Tineo] ... belonging to Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm., is by G. Gasparrini (unsigned) who noted some characters but no col lecting locality on the corresponding label (b). Gussone added the following label (c), in common for both: 8.b Orobanche alexandri Tin. / Aprili Majo / In apricis montosis [manu Gussone]." (Domina & Mazzola 2007: 224, sub O. alexandri, p.p.).

Trapani Province: "Castellamara [Castellammare del Golfo] (Siciliae?)" (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Tuscany / Toscana (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea)

"Toscana" (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea).

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Kazakhstan / Қазақстан / Qazaqstan / Казахстан / Kazajistán [in error for O. cf. bartlingii] (Trautvetter 1866: 445, O. Galii)

East Kazakhstan Region / Шығыс Қазақстан облысы / Восточно-Казахстанская область: "Ex herbario horti Petropolitani / Orobanche Galii Duby / (Teste Trautv. [Trautvetter]) / Songaria [Shungurei / Soogaria / Zhungaria / Dzungaria, Kazakhstan] / Schrenk" (US 14627671 - http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/m337c4d6d6-5516-41db-9460-a6508767bcda - http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3e17e46a6-128d-407a-8819-a7d8880e85bb - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/2643351936; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022, sub O. cf. bartlingii (Trautvetter 1866: 445, O. Galii, "In promontorio jugi Tarbagatai [Tarbagatai Mountains / Тарвагатай нуруу / Тарбагатай (горы) / 塔尔巴哈台山] 23 Jun. (flor. et deflor.) nee non in montibus Dshabyk 16 Jul. (flor. et fruct.) et Karatau 17 Jul. (fruct.) lecta est. Planta Schrenkiatia cum Orob. caryophyllaceae Fl. alt. speciminibus in herbario Ledebouriano asservatis prorsus consentit.")).

Jambyl / Zhambyl Region / Жамбыл облысы / Жамбылская область: "Karatau [Qaratau / Қаратау / Каратау] 17 Jul. (fruct.) lecta est." (Trautvetter 1866: 445, O. Galii).

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Latvia / Latvija / Letonia / Lettland / Латвия (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii; Tzvelev 1981[2001]: 457, "Baltic", sub O. caryophyllacea; Domina & Raab-Straube 2010+) [unconfirmed]

"Hab. in Rossia media [Livonia pr. Kokenhusen [Koknese, Aizkraukle Municipality, Vidzeme] in radice Centaureae nigrae (Fleisch. et Lindkm) ..." (Ledebour 1849: 317, "Livonia", sub O. Galii [according to the host-plant, the species seems to correspond to O. elatior]).

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Liechtenstein (Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea; Aeschimann & al. 2004: 290, sub O. caryophyllacea; Pusch 2009: 66, sub O. caryophyllacea)

Vaduz, Rolf Stricker (2021-10-27) (https://www.gbif.org/es/occurrence/3126086017 - https://www.infoflora.ch/en/flora/orobanche-caryophyllacea.html, accessed Mar 2022).

"Liechtenstein, Guttenstein (Beck)" (Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea).

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Lithuania / Lietuva / Litauen / Lituania / Lituanie / Литва (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii; Tzvelev 1981[2001]: 457, "Baltic", sub O. caryophyllacea; Domina & Raab-Straube 2010+) [unconfirmed]

"Lithuania (Eichw.)" (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii).

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Luxembourg / Luxemburgo / Lëtzebuerg / Luxemburg (Pusch 2009: 66, sub O. caryophyllacea)

"Gutland [Bon Pays]" (Pusch 2009: 66, sub O. caryophyllacea).

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Moldova / Moldavia / Moldawien / Молдавия (Domina & Raab-Straube 2010+)

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Montenegro / Crna Gora [Black Mountain] / Црна Гора (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea; Rohlena 1942; Domina & Raab-Straube 2010+; Gorgas & al. 2018: 13, sub O. caryophyllacea)

Bar Municipality / Opština Bar / Општина Бар / Komuna e Tivarit: " II a [21.05.18, excursion Vrsuta to Rumiji [Rumija / Румија] mountains]" (Gorgas & al. 2018: 13, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Žabljak Municipality / Opština Žabljak: "XIII e [01.06.18 - National Park Durmitor [Национални парк Дурмитор]/Tara River canyon: stop on the street near Žabljak]" (Gorgas & al. 2018: 13, sub O. caryophyllacea).

"Crna Gora, Duga-Pässe [Pass of Duga between Golija and Njegoš] (Reiser), Kukavica-Plan. bei Peč bei 4500 m Seehöhe (Vandas)" (Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea).

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Morocco / المغرب‎, / Marruecos / Marokko [unconfirmed (see Orobanche clausonis Pomel)] (Domina & Raab-Straube 2010+)

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Netherlands / Nederlanden / Países Bajos (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea; Chater & Webb 1972: 292, sub O. caryophyllacea)

South Holland / Zuid-Holland: "Meijendel - Kijfhoek (ZH) [52°07'56.6"N 4°20'46.3"E, Wassenaar]" / 2021-05-28 (https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/3729510244 - https://waarneming.nl/observation/215086038 by Zef Damen in Observation.org; accessed Mar 2022).

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North Macedonia / Северна Македонија / Macedonia del Norte / Macédoine du Nord / Nordmazedonien

Gevgelija Municipality / Општина Гевгелија: "Macedonien: Allchar [Alsar] (Hoffmann)" (Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea).

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Norway / Norge / Noreg / Noruega / Norwegen (Tzvelev 1981[2001]: 457, "Scandinavia (south)", sub O. caryophyllacea; Pusch 2009: 66, "Norwegen", sub O. caryophyllacea; Domina & Raab-Straube 2010+; Gederaas & al. 2012 [introduced])

Trondhjem County / Trondhjems Amt / Trøndelag fylke / Trööndelagen fylhkentjïelte: Sør-Trøndelag (Gederaas & al. 2012).

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Pakistan / پاکِستان / Pakistán / Пакистан [unconfirmed] (Schiman-Czeika 1964: 16, "Pakistania", sub O. vulgaris; Pusch 2009: 66, "Pakistan", sub O. caryophyllacea; Flora of Pakistan, sub O. vulgaris)

Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA): "Kurram distr., 3300 m, Aitch" (Schiman-Czeika 1964: 16, sub O. vulgaris).

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Poland / Polska / Polonia / Polen (Chater & Webb 1972: 292, sub O. caryophyllacea; Pusch 2009: 66, sub O. caryophyllacea)

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Portugal [unconfirmed, probably always in error for other species]

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Romanie / România / Rumanía / Rumänien / Румыния (Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea; Chater & Webb 1972: 292, sub O. caryophyllacea)

Alba County / Fehér megye / Județul Alba [Transylvania / Siebenbürgen / Erdély]: "J. Dörrfler, ... Flora transsilvanica / Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. / in ... Blasendorf [Blaj] / 200 m / 10.6.1898 J. Barth" (https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/p04406420 - P 04406420.jpg - hb. E.G. Camus - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/465113331 - https://explore.recolnat.org/occurrence/FE47011A8F2847CE85A115264D763F6A; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022 [the sheet contains three specimens, only the central specimen seems to correspond to O. caryophyllacea, the two big lateral specimens seem to correspond to O. centaurina (O. kochii).]).

Arad County / Județul Arad [Banat]: Vinga [Vinga]" (Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea).

Caraş-Severin County / Караш Северин / Karaš Severin [Banat]: "In Wäldern auf Galium Mollugo bei Csudanovetz [Czudanovitz / Ciudanoviţa]" (Wierzbicki 1845: 324, sub O. alba Rchb.); "auf Galium Mollugo bei Basias [Bazias / Baziaş / Bazjas / Bazjaš, Socol / Сокол / Sokol, Caraş-Severin]" (Wierzbicki 1845: 324, sub O. pallidiflora W. et Gr.). 

Cluj County [Transylvania]: Baisoara [Băișoara, 46°36'31.2"N 23°25'38.5"E, near Moara de Pădure], 23 Jun 2019 (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/27512879 by Conrad Altmann in iNaturalist, accessed Apr 2022); Cluj [46°49'46.5"N 23°33'32.4"E, Cluj - Napoca / Klausenburg], 5 Jun 2021 (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/81816555 - https://www.gbif.org/es/occurrence/3302107140 by Conrad Altmann in iNaturalist, accessed Mar 2022).

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Russia / Россия / Rossiya / Rusia / Russie / Russland / 俄罗斯 (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii; Beck 1890: 158, loc. class. of O. caryophyllacea var. typica f. besseri); Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea; Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 92[87], sub O. vulgaris; Chater & Webb 1972: 292, sub O. caryophyllacea)

Central Federal District / Центральный федеральный округ / Tsentralny federalny okrug

Moscow / Москва / Moscú: "Mosqua (Martius)" (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii).

Voronezh Oblast / Воронежская область: "Воронежская область, Подгоренский р-н [Podgorensky District]. Правый берег р. Дон, близ с. Белогорье [Belogorye]. Степь над меловыми скалами 24.06.1978. Собр. Тихомиров В., Григорова Н., Смирнова С., Черевань И. [Tikhomirov V., Grigorova N., Smirnova S., Cherevan I.]" (https://plant.depo.msu.ru/open/public/item/MW0513821 - MW 0513821.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/1697662820 et https://plant.depo.msu.ru/open/public/item/MW0513822 - MW 0513822.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/1697662945; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2018).

North Caucasian Federal District / Северо-Кавказский федеральный округ

Dagestan / Daghestan / Республика Дагестан (formerly Дагестанская АССР / Dagestan SSSR): "Daghestan: prope Achty (leg. Becker)!" (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea); "Prov. Dagestan (Lipsky), bei Achty (Becker) ... Gunib [Gunib / Гъуниб / Ghunib (Ghunib District / Гунибский район)]" (Beck 1930: 229, sub O. caryophyllacea); Dagestan, 12.06.2019. Leg. Fateryga A.V. (https://plant.depo.msu.ru/open/public/item/MW1008920 - MW 1008920.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/3004118752; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2021).

Kabardino-Balkar Republic / Кабардино-Балкарская Республика / Kabardino-Balkaria / Кабардино-Балкария: "an der Kluchorstraße bei Nachar [Nachar Pass west of Elbruz] in 1950 m Seehöhe (Engler und Krause!)" (Beck 1930: 229, sub O. caryophyllacea); Кабарда Племхоз [Kabardia] 31.05.1926. Собр. Шумкова А. [Shumkova A.] (https://plant.depo.msu.ru/open/public/item/MW0723428 - https://plant.depo.msu.ru/open/public/item/MW0723428/img/0.jpg?gbif - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/1697840927; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022 sub O. cf. alba).

Karachay-Cherkess Republic / Карачаево-Черкесская республика: "Ciskaukasien: Distr. Kuban bei Batalpaschinsk [Баталпашинск (Cherkessk / Черкесск)] (Lipsky)" (Beck 1930: 229, sub O. caryophyllacea); Orobanche owerinii (G. Beck) G. Beck / Карачаево-Черкесская республика, Усть-Джегутинский район [Ust-Dzhegutinsky District], лев. берег р. Кубань [Kuban river] ... / ... 1179 m / 29 июля 2018 г. Собр. А.Д. Дубровская [A.D. Dubrovskaya] (https://plant.depo.msu.ru/open/public/en/item/MW1008939 - MW 1008939.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2021 [O. caryophyllacea]).

Republic of North Ossetia-Alania / Республика Северная Осетия-Алания (formerly North Ossetian ASSR / Северо-Осетинская АССР): 1. "Северо-Осетинская АССР. Бассейн реки Ардон [Ardon river basin] / южный склон Цейского хребта [southern slope of the Kalpersky Mountain Ridge (Tsey), Alagirsky District / Алагирский район] (левый борт Цейского ущелья [Цейское ущелье / Tsey Gorge / Tsey]) / 1800-2000 m a.s.l. / 26.VII.1976 [leg.] А.М. Амирханов [A.M. Amirkhanov]". – 2. "Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. / 1977 / Teste: Амирханов" (https://plant.depo.msu.ru/open/public/item/MW0723429 - MW 0723429.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/1697840880; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022 sub O. cf. alba).

Stavropol Krai / Ставропольский край: "Beschtau [Beshtau / Бештау] (leg. Paterson)" (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea); "Prov. Terek, bei Kislowodsk [Kislovodsk / Кисловодск] bei 900 m Seehöhe (Akinfiew), Dargh Koch, bei Pjatigorsk [Pyatigorsk / Пятигорск] (Lipsky), auf dem Beschtau [Beshtau / Бештау] (Paterson)" (Beck 1930: 229, sub O. caryophyllacea); "Orobanche caryophyllacea  / ... [Kislovodsk / Кисловодск?] / 13.VI.1924 / Собр. Сюзев [Suzev]" (https://plant.depo.msu.ru/open/public/item/MW0723427 - MW 0723427.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/1697840887; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022 [O. caryophyllacea]); "Соцветия. Ставропольский край, Пятигорск [Pjatigorsk], гора Машук [Mashuk]. 30.05.2008" by Сергей Банкетов [Sergey Banquetov] 2011; таксон определил(а) Холгер Улих [Holger Ulich] in Plantarium, accessed Apr 2022).

Siberian Federal District / Сибирский федеральный округ (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii)

Altai Krai / Алтайский край: "altaica! (Fl. alt.)" (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii); "Kuryinsky District [Курьинский район, 51°18'04.6"N 82°36'45.5"E, near Kolyvan / Колывань]", 13 Jul 2019 (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/28914667 by Ludmila Pozhidaeva, sub O. caryophyllacea, in iNaturalist; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022, sub O. cf. bartlingii).

Irkutsk Oblast / Иркутская область: "baikalensi [Lake Baikal / Oзеро Байкал] (J.G. Gmel.)" (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii).

Southern Federal District / Южный федеральный округ

Astrakhan Oblast / Астраханская область: "in borealiore deserti wologensis parte! (Claus)" (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii).

Krasnodar Krai / Краснодарский край / Krasnoyarsk Krai / Krasnoyarsky kray / Krasnodarsky kray: "[Temryuksky District] Circa Nicolajef ad Ostia Hypanis [Kuban river] Rossiae leg. Besser, herb. Petrop.!" (Beck 1890: 158, loc. class. of O. caryophyllacea var. typica f. besseri); "... Orobanche caryophyllacea Smith / Краснодарский край, Анапский район [Anapsky District], / ... Абрау [Abrau], Навагирский хребет [Navagirskiy Khrebet], Лобанова щель [Lobanova shchel'] ... 650 m ... / 44°42'42.7"N 37°28'44.9"E / на Carpinus orientalis [erroneous host-plant]. / 26.05.2018 / Рябенко О.И. [Ryabenko O.I.] ..." (https://plant.depo.msu.ru/open/public/item/MW1008919 - MW 1008919.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/3004110755; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2021 [O. hederae]).

Rostov Oblast / Ростовская область: "Hab. in Rossia ... australi [pr. Taganrog! (Elsingk pl. exs.)], ad Tanain (Henining)]" (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii).

Volgograd Oblast / Волгоградская область: 1. "... / Orobanche coerulescens Steph. / ... / Provincia Volgograd, districtus / ... Кременская [Kremenskaya (Kletsky District / Клетский район)] ... 14.06.1992. Собр. И. Шанцер [I. Shantser]". – 2. "Orobanche laevis L. ... 16.03.2021". – 3. "Orobanche caryophyllacea Smith / 3.04.2021 ..." (https://plant.depo.msu.ru/open/public/item/MHA0162426 - MHA 0162426.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/3345589141; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022, sub O. amoena).

Ural Federal District / Уральский федеральный округ (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii)

Chelyabinsk Oblast / Челябинская область: "inque Sibiria uralensi pr. Slatoust [Zlatoust / Златоуст] (Nesterofsky)" (Ledebour 1849: 317, sub O. Galii).

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Serbia / Srbija / Србија (Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea; Chater & Webb 1972: 292, sub O. caryophyllacea; Domina & Raab-Straube 2010+)

Nišava District / Нишавски округ / Nišavski okrug: "Чукљеник [Čukljenik, 43°16'45.4"N 22°03'51.6"E], 22 May 2019 (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/25666379 - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/2517948801 by sanca13 in iNaturalist, accessed Apr 2022 [on Galium sp.]).

Šumadija District / Шумадијски округ / Šumadijski okrug: Lipovac [Липовац, 44°15'44.5"N 20°36'13.5"E], 1 Jun 2019 (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/26204770 by nikolall in iNaturalist, accessed Mar 2022 [very illustrative images, on Galium sp.]).

South Banat District / Јужнобанатски округ / Južnobanatski okrug [Vojvodina / Војводина]: "Vojvodina (Versecz = Vrsac [Vršac (South Banat District)], Grebenacz [Grebenac / Гребенац / Grebenaț, Bela Crkva municipality, South Banat District], ... Deliblát [Deliblato / Делиблато / Deliblata (Kovin)] [Herb. Degen])" (Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea).

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Slovakia / Slovensko / Eslovaquia / Slowakei (Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea; Chater & Webb 1972: 292, sub O. caryophyllacea; Cagáň & Tóth 2004: 51; Domina & Raab-Straube 2010+)

"Slowakei (Preßburg, Pukanec, Dobschau, Hrabuša bei Pirtz)" (Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea).

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Slovenia / Slovenija / Eslovenia / Slowenien (Chater & Webb 1972: 292, sub O. caryophyllacea; Pusch 2009: 66, sub O. caryophyllacea; Domina & Raab-Straube 2010+)

Lower Carniola / Dolenjska / Unterkrain: "1291 Pleše, Slovenija [45°59'52.3"N 14°36'43.5"E, Škofljica]", 4 May 2021 (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/77307700 - https://www.gbif.org/es/occurrence/3113298585 by Ljaž in iNaturalist, accessed Mar 2022 [very illustrative images, on Galium sp.]).

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Spain / España / Espagne / Spanien (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Beck 1930: 228, sub O. caryophyllacea)

Álava / Araba (Vi): BIO 0496 / [...] / Orobanche caryophyllacea / Bernedo (Vi) Peñalta WN4018; 1100 m / Pastos caldeados al pie de cantil / Cara S / P.M. Uribe-Echebarría, 10-6-1983. Revisión para «Orobanchaceae - Paleártico» / O. caryophyllacea Sm. / Det.-rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja 22.09.2006; 1. "Cara Sur Peña Alta ... 1000 m / Calizas ... Con S. crythmifolia / A. lecoquii / R. scutatus... // ...  Orobanche cf. caryophyllacea / 30-VI-1979 / P. Heras & J.A. Alejandre". – 2. "Revisión para «Orobanchaceae - Paleártico» / Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. / Det.-rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja 26.11.2002 [Obs. De Peña Alta (Vi)... (Aseginolaza & al. 1985: 704)]".

Albacete (Ab) [unconfirmed (see Orobanche clausonis Pomel)]: Letur, Calar de la Peña del Águila, 30SWH8241, 1100 m (Sánchez Gómez & al. 1987: 523); Sierra del Calar, Letur, 30SWH8341, 1250 m., P. Sánchez Gómez & F. Alcaraz Ariza (MUB) (Sánchez Gómez & al. 1993); "...algunas de las citas albacetenses correspondientes a la especie O. caryophyllacea, pudieran en realidad corresponder a O. clausonis ... el pliego MUB 16610 (Sánchez Gómez y cols. 1987: 523), correspondiente a Letur y determinado inicialmente como O. caryophyllacea, según opinión de Sánchez Pedraja..." (Gómez & al. 2017: 108-109, sub O. clausonis).

Alicante / Alacant (A) [unconfirmed (Pujadas 2001: 84 [see O. clausonis Pomel])]: Alicante, provincia, 30SYH06, 630 m, parásita entre el matorral (MUB 14833) (Torre & al. 1987: 41; Pujadas 2001: 84, rev. ut O. amethystea [Maigmó, MUB 14833]); "Alicante [Alcoy / Alcoi, 38°42'56.2"N 0°28'07.3"W]", 9 May 2020 (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/45350121 - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/3328005335 by Sergio Picó https://www.inaturalist.org/people/s_pico in iNaturalist, accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2022, sub O. clausonis Pomel).

Asturias [formerly known as Ovideo Province] (O): Lago Enol-Peña Sta. Castilla (Picos de Europa), 30TUN39 (Laínz 1957); Canal del Cares, 30TUN48 "Sobre Galium!" (Laínz & al. 1964: 202, sub O. vulgaris Poir.).

Ávila (Av): Navacepedilla de Corneja (Estrada Sánchez 1986).

Barcelona (B): Fígols, junto a Peguera (comarca de Berguedà), 31TCG9868, 1620 m, sobre (!) Galium verum L. (Rubiaceae), L. Carlón, G. Gómez Casares & G. Moreno Moral MM0068/2005, 16.06.2005 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 12264 [yellow form]).

Burgos (Bu): "Miranda" (Guinea 1953: 363); "Condado de Treviño, Imiruri" (Aseginolaza & al. 1985: 704); 1. "Herbario Alejandre / N.º 992/84 / ... Jurisdicción de San Zadornil: Sierra de Arcena. Roquedos calizos en la umbría. 1250 m. / 30TVN8639 / 21 de julio de 1984 / leg. B. Fz. de Betoño / G. Morante / J.A. Alejandre". – 2. "Revisión para «Contribuciones VI» 992/84 / Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. / Det.-rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja 26.11.2002 (Alejandre & al. 2006: 465); 1. "BIO 18427 / [...] / Orobanche amethystea / Cañón del río Oca / 30TVN6535 / Gravas, 600 m / 13-05-1989 / García-Mijangos". – 2. "Revisión para «Orobanchaceae - Paleártico» / O. caryophyllacea Sm. / Det.-rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja 22.09.2006 (García Mijangos 1997: 177, sub O. amethystea Thuill. subsp. amethystea); 1. "BIO 18431 / [...] / Orobanche amethystea / Trespaderne, vías del tren Oña a / Pedrera, 600 m / Trespaderne, 30TVN6637 / 11-06-1988 / I. García-Mijangos & A. Quintana". – 2. "Revisión para «Orobanchaceae - Paleártico» / O. caryophyllacea Sm. / Det.-rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja, 22.09.2006 (García Mijangos 1997: 177, sub O. amethystea Thuill. subsp. amethystea)"; Sotregudo, sobre Amaya, 30TVN0422, 1250 m, sobre (!) Galium sp. (Rubiaceae), substrato calizo, G. Moreno Moral MM0252/2002, 16.06.2002 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 10685) (Alejandre & al. 2006: 465); Valle de Zamanzas, cruce a Gallejones, 30TVN34, 672 m, sobre (!) Galium fruticescens Cav. (Rubiaceae), borde de encinar, substrato calizo, Ó. Sánchez Pedraja & M. Tapia Bon SP0043/2005, 29.05.2005 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 12141); municipality of Merindad del Río Ubierna, near San Martín de Ubierna, 30TVN4206, parasitic on Galium sp. (Rubiaceae) in limestone slopes, Ó. Sánchez Pedraja & M. Tapia Bon, 23 Jun 2007 (obs.).

Cantabria [formerly known as Santander Province] (S): Castro-Urdiales, 30TVP80 (Laínz 1957); Cañeda, Enmedio, 30TVN06, "Sobre Galium! ... Pereda legit" (Laínz & al. 1964: 202, sub O. vulgaris Poir.); Campoo de Enmedio, pr. Cañeda, 30TVN0864, 900 m, sobre (?) Galium sp. (Rubiaceae) [cf.] en pastizal-brezal, M. Laínz & Ó. Sánchez Pedraja, 09.06.1993 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 02489); Valdeolea, pr. San Martín de Hoyos, 30TVP0654, 1000 m, sobre (!) Galium verum L. [cf.] (Rubiaceae), substrato calizo, G. Moreno Moral MM0115/1996, 09.06.1996 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 05699); Valderredible, pr. Espinosa de Bricia, 30TVN2946, 1000 m, sobre Galium verum L. [cf.] (Rubiaceae), substrato calizo, G. Moreno Moral & Ó. Sánchez Pedraja SP0150/1997, 29.05.1997 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 06512); Pesaguero, Peña Ciquera —sobre Cueva—, 30TUN7867, 1530 m, sobre (!) Galium sp. (Rubiaceae), substrato calizo, G. Moreno Moral MM0090/1997, 06/07/1997 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 06806); Valdeprado del Río, bajo San Andrés, 30TVN1151, 920 m, aparentemente sobre Galium sp. en ladera terrosa (Rubiaceae), soleada, substrato calizo, G. Moreno Moral MM0102/1998, 31/05/1998 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 07607); Valderredible, San Cristobal del Monte, 30TVN0341, 920 m, sobre (!) Galium verum L. (Rubiaceae), el cual coloniza el borde de la carretera, G. Moreno Moral MM0099/2000, 27.05.2000 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 08986); Tresviso, junto a la central de Urdón, 30TUN6791, 90 m, aparentemente sobre Galium sp. (Rubiaceae) en suelos pedregosos calizos, G. Moreno Moral MM0142/2001, 19/05/2001 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 09777); Valderredible, en Peñas Altas —pr. Espinosa de Bricia—, 30TVN2945, 970 m, aparentemente sobre Galium verum L. (Rubiaceae) en pastizal-matorral sobre calizas, G. Moreno Moral MM0230/2002, 02.06.2002 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 10612); Liébana, sobre (?) Galium sp. (Rubiaceae) [cf.], G. Gómez Casares GC0041/2002, 07/2002 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 10897); Camaleño, Tornos de Liordes —macizo central o los Urrieles (Picos de Europa)—, 30TUN57, sobre (?) Galium sp. (Rubiaceae) [cf.] en substrato calizo (?), G. Gómez Casares, 07/07/2002 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 11087); Camaleño, Tornos de Liordes —macizo central o los Urrieles (Picos de Europa)—, 30TUN57, aparentemente sobre Galium sp. (Rubiaceae) en substrato calizo (?), G. Gómez Casares GC0042/2002, 07/07/2002 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 10898); Peñarrubia, Urdón, 31TCG9868, sobre Galium sp. (Rubiaceae), G. Moreno Moral, 10.05.2003 (obs.).

Castellón / Castelló (Cs) [unconfirmed (Pujadas & al. 2007: 14 [see O. clausonis Pomel])]: "pr. Segorbe ad rad. Galii rigidi [Galium rigidum Vill. = Galium lucidum All. subsp. lucidum] (Pau)" (Willkomm 1893: 187, sub O. caryophyllacea Sm.); "Villamalur ... Cortes de Arenoso ... Villahermosa del Río" (Roselló 1994: 257); L'Alt Palància, Pina de Montalgrao, El Rebollar, 30TYK0033, 1100 m., paràsit de rubiàcies, 28-V-1989, J. Riera (VAL 21505) (Riera & Aguilella 1997).